Anthurium: growing, reproduction and transplantation, species and photos


Houseplants

Botanical description

Anthurium (lat.Anthurium) - a genus of predominantly epiphytic plants from the Aroid plant family. There are also herbaceous plants, lianas and semi-epiphytes, depending on the species. In nature, anthuriums mainly grow on the North and South American continents in tropical and subtropical zones.
Anthurium (Greek "anthos" - flower and "oura" - tail) got its name because of the structure of the flower, which is expressed by a cob with a sheet-veil. Flowers come in blue, white, red and other colors. The leaves of anthurium are leathery, they are whole or dissected, small or large, monochromatic or with a pattern - it all depends on the type and variety of anthurium.
Anthurium is one of the most popular members of the family. They grow not only indoor anthurium, but also garden anthurium, as well as specially for cutting. In culture, more than 100 hybrids are grown, which are planted in gardens, apartments, or used in drawing up bouquets. Homemade anthurium is grown for both beautiful leaves and flowers.

Briefly about growing

  • Bloom: from February to November.
  • Lighting: bright diffused light protected from direct sunlight.
  • Temperature: in spring and summer - 22-28 ºC, from September to February - about 16 ºC, and Scherzer's anthurium is kept in winter at 12-14 ºC.
  • Watering: during the growing season - plentiful, as soon as the potted substrate dries to the middle of the depth. The rest of the time, watering is reduced to moderate.
  • Air humidity: high - about 90%. It is recommended to regularly wash the leaves with a damp sponge, sprinkle and keep the plant on a pallet with wet pebbles or expanded clay.
  • Top dressing: in spring and summer, every two to three weeks with a complex mineral fertilizer at half the dosage recommended by manufacturers. Once every one and a half to two weeks, fertilizing is carried out on the leaves.
  • Rest period: from mid-autumn to early spring.
  • Transfer: in February-March, and in case of emergency, from March to August. Young plants are transplanted annually, and mature ones - no more than once every 2-3 years.
  • Substrate: loose, breathable: 1 part of sod land, 2 parts of peat and 2 parts of chopped sphagnum.
  • Reproduction: seeds and cuttings.
  • Pests: aphids, scale insects and spider mites.
  • Diseases: the plant can be sick from waterlogging of the soil, lack or excess of nutrients in the substrate, improper care and violation of conditions.
  • Properties: anthurium is poisonous!

Read more about growing anthurium below.

Anthurium photo

Anthurium video

Anthurium care at home

Lighting

The anthurium plant feels best on windows on the east or west side, since the plant needs bright, but diffused light for normal growth. The plant will grow on the northern windows, but still there may be little light. On the south side, anthurium should be placed farther from the window, or the glass should be covered with newspaper (tulle, etc.) so that direct rays do not fall on the leaves during hot hours.

Temperature

Anthurium is a rather thermophilic plant, therefore, in spring and summer, the temperature for it should be between 22 and 28 ° C, a decrease below 18 ° C can lead to the appearance of diseases. From September to February inclusive, the temperature is maintained at about 16 ° C, and Scherzer's anthurium needs a decrease to 12-14 ° C for a couple of months. Temperature rise and fall during transition periods should be smooth. Anthurium does not like sudden changes in temperature and drafts.

Watering anthurium

Anthurium is watered abundantly during the growing season, immediately after the soil dries out to half the height of the pot. Water for irrigation is taken from a settled and soft, rainwater is best suited. When watering anthurium, it is necessary to use the rule "it is better to underfill than to overfill", since the roots of anthurium very quickly begin to rot if the substrate is constantly waterlogged. Excess water from the sump must be drained immediately after watering.

Spraying

Anthurium flower requires high air humidity (about 90%), since insufficient humidity leads to the fact that the plant slows down development. Anthurium leaves should be wiped with a damp soft sponge from time to time to remove dust. Even the leaves in warm weather need to be sprayed (with warm, settled water), which also has a positive effect on the growth of the plant, and the pot itself, to increase the humidity around it, it is advisable to put on a pallet with wet pebbles or expanded clay, but so that the pot is not immersed in water. You only need to spray the leaves, since the ingress of water on the flowers can lead to the appearance of spots on them and a decrease in the decorative qualities of anthurium.

Top dressing

The plant needs regular feeding, but remember that mineral fertilizers need to be diluted in half, compared to the standard recommended dose. Fertilizers are applied only in spring and summer every 15-20 days. You can feed anthurium with the help of foliar dressings - this is done more often, every week and a half. The introduction of organic fertilizers will be very useful, but it is not always convenient to carry them out in room conditions. Infusion of chicken manure or fermented mullein, as well as leaf humus, cow or horse manure, are suitable.

Bloom

To stimulate a good bud setting and subsequent flowering, the anthurium needs to provide a cool winter for one and a half to two months (14-16 ° C). If the care is carried out correctly, then flowering can continue from late spring to early autumn, and some Andre anthurium hybrids can delight with flowering almost all year round. In order for the flower to bloom better, you need to cut off the faded inflorescences, which will save the plant strength for young flowers. If there is a desire to get seeds, then the flowers must be artificially pollinated by transferring pollen from one flower to another with a soft brush. If you cut off well-formed flowers, then they can stand in a vase from 20 to 35 days, and not fully formed ears fade very quickly - they will not stand even for 5 days.

Anthurium transplant

Anthurium is transplanted at the beginning of active growth (February-March) or from March to August, if necessary, and they do it carefully, since the roots and leaves are very easy to damage. Young specimens are transplanted annually, with the pot increasing in diameter by 1-2 cm each time. Adult plants are transplanted as needed (if the pot has become small), but usually not more often than once every two to three years. They take a plastic pot for planting, since in ceramic the soil temperature is usually slightly lower than the air temperature. The pot is taken as wide as it is high, and a drainage layer of fine bricks must be poured onto the bottom of the pot so that the water in the pot does not stagnate. Aerial roots can be overlaid with sphagnum moss and periodically moistened. The substrate should be loose, moisture and air permeable. The earthen mixture is made up of one part of sod land, two parts of peat and the same amount of chopped sphagnum moss. A mixture of equal parts of peat, sand and deciduous soil is also suitable, but it is better to add more coniferous bark and small pieces of charcoal. It can be grown in the bark without additives, but with this kind of anthurium cultivation, regular fertilization is necessary. The next option is expanded clay, pine bark and coarse peat. A substrate made up of pumice stone (1-3 cm in diameter), bark of pine trees (3-5 cm in diameter), half-rotted horse manure and coarse peat (2: 2: 1: 1) is also suitable. The mixture can be changed with each transfer.

Growing from seeds

To propagate anthurium by seeds, you need to get these seeds first. It is better to do this yourself from your flowers, since you need to sow the seeds immediately after harvesting, because they lose their germination very quickly. To get seeds, the flower must be artificially pollinated by transferring pollen from one ear to another. It is best to do this several times at intervals of a couple of days. Anthurium's fruits are berries with seeds. The seeds need 8 to 10 months to mature. The seeds are removed from the fruit, washed, and then treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Anthurium seeds are sown in a loose and light substrate with a thin layer of perlite on top: the seeds are laid out on the surface and pressed a little into the soil. The container with the seeds is covered with glass, the temperature is kept around 22 ° C. Seedlings should appear within a couple of weeks. When a sprout has a pair of true leaves, it is dived into a light substrate, which can include coniferous or leafy soil, as well as charcoal, mullein, and high moor peat. The sprouts will still have to dive into larger pots a couple of times as they develop. The anthurium may bloom for the first time after a couple of years, but the flowers will be weak and underdeveloped. The first true flowering takes place in the 4th or 5th year with proper care. Andre's anthurium hybrids may take a little longer. Usually, propagation by seeds leads to a loss of varietal qualities of the plant and a decrease in decorativeness.

Propagation by cuttings

Anthurium is easier to propagate vegetatively - using apical cuttings or stem suckers. The lateral shoots can be removed from the mother plant and planted in a separate pot. First, it is better to root the shoots if the roots on them are absent or poorly developed. They are rooted in perlite or ordinary sand: covered with glass, moistened and ventilated, the temperature is maintained around 22-24 ° C. Apical cuttings are rooted in the same way. When the roots appear, the plants are planted in the soil described in the Transplant section above.

Virulence

Anthurium is a rather poisonous plant, so you need to make sure that children and animals do not chew the leaves and fruits, which can cause food poisoning, vomiting, diarrhea, as well as skin irritation and dermatitis.

Diseases and pests

Diseases of anthurium. Anthurium can get sick with rot if the soil does not have time to dry out between waterings - it should dry out at least a third of its height, especially at low room temperatures. Another misfortune is anthracnose, which can be identified by the leaves: they begin to dry out, starting from the edges.

Anthurium does not bloom. The reason may be the presence of pests or diseases, as well as generally improper care - read the recommendations for care above.

Anthurium turns yellow. If the leaves of anthurium turn yellow, then this is a sign that the roots of the plant have begun to rot, which requires surgical intervention. The plant is removed from the soil, all decaying parts are removed and healthy parts are transplanted into a new fresh substrate. Watered carefully, since it is the wrong watering that leads to such consequences.

The tips of the leaves of anthurium turn black. Excess calcium. Top dressing should be carried out in half the dose.

Spots on the leaves of anthurium. May appear due to excessive watering.

Anthurium dries up. There are several options, and they are opposite. This can be either an excess of minerals or a lack of them; both over and under watering. Replacement of soil may be required.

Anthurium leaves curl. There can be many reasons: the plant is standing in a draft or in direct sunlight, the air humidity is too low or the plant does not have enough light.

Anthurium pests. Anthurium is damaged by aphids, spider mites and, especially, by the scale insect.

Views

Anthurium Andrae / Anthurium andraeanum

This species is an epiphytic plant growing in the mountain forests of Colombia and Ecuador. The stem is short, there are aerial roots. The leaves are bright green, large, glossy, petiolate, the leaf plate is heart-shaped, reaches 40 cm in length and 20 cm in width.The flower is an ear with a veil: the ear is large, yellowish or cream-colored, it can be white, cylindrical, can reach 10-15 cm in length; the veil is leathery, rather large, heart-shaped, bright and shiny, the color can be white, salmon, pink, red or other shades of these colors. It blooms for a long time (up to 1.5 months), and at the end of flowering, the bedspread takes on a greenish tint. The species has many different hybrid forms and varieties.

Anthurium Baker / Anthurium bakeri

The stem of this epiphytic plant is short. The leaves are long and narrow, belt-shaped (up to 0.5 m long and up to 10 cm wide), the upper side of the leaf is green, and on the lower side there are dots of a reddish-brown hue. The inflorescence grows on a peduncle (10-30 cm). The ear is of a creamy shade, usually 5-10 cm long. The cover is light green-yellow with lilac edges, leathery, up to 5 cm long and up to 2.5 cm wide. Berries are bright red, small.

Anthurium magnificum

There can be both terrestrial and epiphytic varieties. It is very similar to crystal anthurium, but differs in its stalk - it is tetrahedral, not round in section. The veins on a leaf of this species are not silvery, but olive in color, but the veil is longer.

Anthurium hookeri

The plant is epiphytic, native to tropical forests. The leaves are bright green, large, wide, and on the upper and lower sides of the leaf plate are covered with black dots, petiolate (petiole up to 15 cm long, may be shorter, usually triangular in cross-section). Peduncle from 0.5 m to almost 1 m long; the ear is pinkish or light purple, up to 30 cm long; the blanket is green, long (up to 20 cm) and narrow (up to 5 cm). The berries are white with a red top.

Anthurium climbing / Anthurium scandens

Climbing epiphytic shade-tolerant plant. The roots are thick. Stem up to 1 m long. The shape of the leaves depends on the variety and can be either lanceolate or oval. Leaves are leathery, the underside of the leaf is covered with small black specks. The peduncle can be green or reddish, up to 5-6 cm long. The ear is up to 2 cm long and up to 2 mm thick, greenish-yellow. The bedspread is light green, up to 10-15 cm long and up to 0.5 cm wide. The color of the berries depends on the variety or subspecies and can be white, light purple, dark purple.

Anthurium polyschistum / Anthurium polyschistum

The representative of the species is a liana. Finger-dissected leaves. Each part of the leaf is lanceolate, the edge is wavy, reaching 15 cm in length and 1.5 cm in width. Peduncle up to 25 cm long. The ear is up to 10 cm long, the same length and bedspread. The fruit is a red berry.

Crystal Anthurium / Anthurium crystallinum

An epiphytic plant with a short caudex sometimes found underground. The leaves are long (up to 40 cm) and wide (up to 20 cm), dark green, petiolate, velvety, on the upper side a shiny silvery vein. Peduncle grows up to 0.5 m in length: ear up to 25 cm; the blanket is green with a purple tint, up to 10 cm long and up to 2 cm wide; the fruit is purple berries.

Anthurium scherzerianum

Epiphytic plant. Leaves are non-shiny, dark green, leathery, depending on the variety, they can be lanceolate or elliptical, petiolar (from 5 to 20 cm long), covered with black dots on both sides of the leaf plate. Peduncle from 15 cm to 0.5 m long. The ear is orange or yellow, up to 8 cm long, spiral. The bedspread is red-orange, bright, ovoid or oval in shape, up to 6 cm wide and up to 12 cm long. The berries are red-orange.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the Aroid family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Indoor Plants Information

Sections: Houseplants Aroid (Aronic) Shade-tolerant Plants on A


Pittosporum: photo, description, cultivation and care

  • Flower tree pittosporum
  • Types of pittosporum
  • Caring for pittosporum at home
  • Lighting for pittosporum
  • Comfortable temperature
  • Watering and air humidity
  • Top dressing for pittosporum
  • Pruning pittosporums
  • Pittosporum transplant and substrate
  • Diseases and pests of pittosporum
  • Reproduction of resin seed

Pittosporum: photo, description, cultivation and care. Among large indoor pets, shrubs or trees, the appearance of which would seem exotic and classic at the same time, are not often found. This is what pittosporum looks like. From a distance, the dense crown seems just neat, but as soon as you get closer to the plant, the whorled arrangement of the leaves becomes obvious, giving it curliness, and the beauty of shades of greenery, and gentle flowering. He is a great and resilient soloist for those looking for originality even in landscaping.


Types and varieties of ear primrose

"Ear primrose" (auricula) has about 400 species, which are radically different from each other in shape, size, color and type of inflorescences. Divided into blooming in spring and summer. The culture grows in different conditions, in almost all climatic zones, has an enviable cold resistance. Many species can be found in one flower garden. The lifespan of the "Ear primrose" depends on the particular variety. There are those that live only 12 months, but on average, the bushes bloom profusely for 3-4 seasons. Some species bloom in the second year of life.

Eared primrose varieties are presented in almost all colors: yellow, red, purple, carmine, burgundy and apricot

Any kind of plant can be easily obtained from seeds, and then planted in a permanent place. The most common is the dwarf species (Primula Dwarf), which grows in the Middle East and East Asia, Western Europe, Crimea and Russia. It has lush inflorescences with numerous flowers in white, yellow, pink, red and purple.


Reproduction

Echeveria reproduces at home in two main ways: leaf and rosettes.

Reproduction of echeveria by a leaf

The lower healthy leaf is carefully torn off and dried in the open air for 2-3 hours. Then the leaf is gently pressed into the mortar for echeveria. The earth is moistened with a spray bottle. The container is covered with polyethylene or glass and placed in a well-lit, warm (25 degrees) place. The "greenhouse" is aired daily and humidified as needed.

After 2-3 weeks, one or more children should appear at the base of the leaflet. Young plants can be transplanted into individual pots when the mother leaf dries up.

Reproduction by rosettes

The basal or apical rosette is cut with a sharp knife. The lower leaves are carefully removed. The rosette is dried in the open air for 2-3 hours, then planted in slightly moistened soil for echeveria. The plant is kept at a temperature of 22-25 degrees. A young plant should take root within a month.


Outdoor care

An extremely unpretentious plant, prefers any soil, preferably with neutral acidity, moderate even poor watering. Subject to simple rules, you can observe lobularia flowers until frost.

Pruning

The basic rules for caring for a bush are reduced to pruning, which is carried out after the first wave of flowering, with the onset of hot, dry, sultry weather. The bush is cut low, after which the plant begins to grow again and by autumn it will bloom again, even more magnificently. In the selection, varieties were bred that do not need pruning to resume flowering, they themselves begin to bloom after hot, sultry weather, as soon as the weather conditions become more comfortable.

For a potted flower, more careful care is needed, regular diving of the lobularia is necessary to maintain the shape of the bush and shorten the weak overgrown shoots.

Watering

Plants do not suffer from a lack of moisture at all, the amount of watering does not affect the flowering of the bush. Therefore, experienced gardeners advise to water the plant only during hot, dry weather, and, as a supportive therapy, in the first weeks after planting in a permanent place.


Reproduction

Reproduction of eucharis is carried out mainly in a vegetative way and is traditionally carried out when it is transplanted.... In this case, the method of dividing the bush is used. For propagation, it is recommended to use only daughter bulbs that are completely separated from the mother bush.

At the transshipment stage, one should pay attention to the state of the earthy coma and visually determine whether separation is possible. If the number of daughter bulbs requiring separation does not exceed two and their size is small, separation should not be better done at the next transplant.

If there is a clear "collapse" of the earthy coma, it should be divided. In this case, young bulbs are very carefully separated from the mother plant and transplanted into separate pots. In this case, you can plant not one, but several small onions in one pot.

Several daughter bulbs transplanted into a separate pot

In this case, the substrate in the new pot should be slightly more moistened than usual. After transplanting, watering both the daughter plants and the mother cannot be watered for 1-2 weeks. The growth rate of the green mass of daughter bulbs in a new place in the first season will be somewhat faster than that of the mother plant.

Growth of green mass in several daughter bulbs

At the same time, flowering will begin later, or will not begin this season at all, since their root system is not yet sufficiently formed.


The most popular types of anthuriums

Today, there are several popular species suitable for growing at home. Anthuriums can be roughly divided into three groups: flowering, variegated and green-leaved. The flowering ones include A. andreanum anthurium and its varieties (including hybrid origin - the result of crosses with A. lindenianum anthurium) Scherzer's anthurium (A. scherzerianum).

On sale you can find many hybrids of Andre and Scherzer anthuriums with a very different color of the cover of the flower - from bright red to almost white or spotted. Unlike Scherzer, Andre hybrids bloom throughout the year and can withstand cooling to 15 'C.

(Anthurium Andreanum) - a plant with a short stem, leathery, shiny, green leaves, heart-shaped, on long hard petioles hanging down. Leaf length 25-30 cm, width 10-20 cm. Heart-shaped bracts from white to dark red, glossy. The ear up to 15 cm long can be erect or slightly drooping, yellow in color. The color of the bedspread can be white, orange, pale pink, crimson red. Flowering lasts more than a month, even when cut, it retains freshness for about 4 weeks. When flowering, the bedspread does not fade, but coarsens and acquires a greenish color. Anthurium Andre is a larger plant than Scherzer and is more difficult to take root in indoor conditions.

Scherzer's Anthurium (Anthurium scherzerianum) is the second most popular species of the genus, but the flower most adapted to indoor conditions. This is a plant with a shortened stem and densely arranged oblong, dark green leaves on long petioles. Leaf length 15-30 cm, width 7-10 cm. Peduncle is long from 20 to 30 cm. The bracts of this type of anthurium are glossy white, oval, or pink, yellow or red. The inflorescence is a spiral-shaped ear of red color, up to 10 cm long. The time from the beginning of the opening of the flower to its wilting is about three months. Flowers on inflorescences begin to fade from the bottom up. This allows the flowering duration to be maintained longer.

Crystal anthurium (Anthurium Crystallinum) - thanks to its beautiful foliage, it is used as an ornamental deciduous plant. The leaves are large, dark green or olive, heart-shaped, velvety, with silvery veins. The bract is not a bright brownish or purple color, narrow, small in length, up to 10 centimeters. This species, like Anthurium veitchii, can only be grown in a greenhouse.

Among other species of anthuriums, the majestic (Anthurium magpificum), Hooker (Anthurium hookeri) and also the unpretentious ampelous climbing (Anthurium scandens), with dense cobs of snow-white berries, developing from unremarkable inflorescences and still spreading on the substrate anthurium rooting ), forming a continuous carpet of glossy embossed chocolate brown leaves.

Unfortunately, Anthurium is considered a somewhat difficult flower to care for, but only the most common species, Scherzer's Anthurium, is more or less adapted to domestic conditions. It is only necessary to observe some important conditions of its keeping (see care).



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