Rules for pruning fruit trees at different times of the year

As much as we love the natural and pristine beauty, we are aware that fruit trees and shrubs need special care. Their function in the garden is fruiting. And they will be able to fully fulfill it if the gardener remembers how important it is to prune fruit trees in autumn, winter and especially in spring. This procedure allows you to properly shape the crown of the plant so that each branch receives enough light and air. With the help of pruning, the tree is sanitized, protecting it from the spread of numerous diseases to which it can be exposed. Pruning plants and the features of this procedure for different seasons is the main topic of the article.

Choosing garden pruning tools

A gardener's arsenal needs to include suitable tools for pruning fruit trees and various shrubs. Here's what we need:

  • Pruner. Avoid choosing a ratchet tool that will have to be pressed multiple times to cut. The pruner should be casual and comfortable.
  • Garden hacksaw. It is a saber-shaped instrument tapering towards the end of the panel. There should be special gaps in the teeth of the hacksaw to prevent sawdust from accumulating. No need to use a hacksaw for construction work. To prune fruit trees, you need to take exclusively garden tools with a specific profile and blade angle for the convenience of work.
  • Air secateurs... It looks like this: on a long bar, possibly telescopic, a pruner is fixed, which is set in motion with a rope and levers. Using such a tool, you can prune those branches that are difficult to reach in any other way.

You can learn more about how to choose the right hacksaw from the material:

It is important that the blades are clean and sharp. Only by using sharp instruments can the formation of torn wound surfaces, into which microorganisms dangerous to trees penetrate, can be prevented. Upon completion of work, the cutting surfaces of the tool are thoroughly cleaned and wiped with an oiled cloth.

Together with the tools for work, you must purchase a garden pitch. This is a kind of ointment, prepared on the basis of petroleum products and having a plastic consistency at positive temperatures. With this product, it is necessary to cover wounds on the surface of a tree, having a diameter of 1-2 cm. However, not in all weather conditions, the var will fit well on the wood. Its role can be played by oil paint, i.e. paint based on drying oil.

A good quality tool is very important to ensure that the pruning procedure is as painful as possible for the plants. You cannot use a construction tool instead of a garden one.

In addition to garden varnish, you can use oil paint based on drying oil and yellow clay, mixed with cow dung

Various cutting techniques

During the pruning process, different cutting techniques are used. The choice of a specific technique depends on the purpose of the work.

Method # 1 - cut to the kidney

With this type of pruning, you can, for example, change the direction of growth of a branch and set it as we need. To do this, you need to take a one-year-old growth shoot. On it, select a bud growing in the desired direction.

The correct cut for the bud should be at about a 45 degree angle to the branch. Correct cut No. 1. In other cases, either a large stump is left, or the kidney is cut, or the angle of cut is incorrect

The secateurs should be held so that the cutting insert is turned not towards the part to be cut, but towards the part to be left. The cut should be done at a slight angle so that the kidney is not cut, but the hemp above it does not form. The perpendicular drawn from the base of the kidney should not fall on the cut.

If the cut is too sharp, the kidney will not receive the nutrition it needs and will dry out, and we need it to be alive and to sprout. The large stump left will also dry out, while the kidney may not wake up. The hemp-retaining cut can be used on shrubs.

Method # 2 - cut into a ring

With this type of pruning, a whole branch is removed that does not grow properly, for example, inside the crown. It takes food from the tree, and from the point of view of the fruit bearing of the tree it is absolutely useless. If the thickness of the branch allows, then you can cut it off with a pruner.

The last # 3 is the correct cut. It is necessary to cut along the outer surface of the ring, then there will be no protruding hemp, as in the first case, or a gouge will not occur, as in the second

At the junctions of the branches, there are peculiar influxes of bark. These are the rings. The cut should be made along the outer edge of the ring.

Method # 3 - cut to the side branch

This type of cut is used if you need to transfer the course of growth from one branch to another. Delete the unnecessary branch. In relation to the left branch, the cut will be, as it were, its continuation. So we made the side branch the main one. And when cutting into a ring, we just removed the side branch.

If a side branch is to be removed in a cut on a ring, then in this case it is the side branch that remains so that growth continues in its direction

Various types of pruning

When pruning, the grower can serve a variety of purposes. Accordingly, different types of trimming are also distinguished.

  • Formative. Helps to create a crown of the required density and silhouette of the tree. Thanks to her, a properly formed skeletal part acquires resistance to stress. Forming pruning in February intensifies regrowth and slows down growth in March-April.
  • Regulatory. It is necessary to preserve the formed crown, helps to maintain good illumination of the branches, does not overload the skeletal part with young shoots. Such pruning is relevant in February-April and August-September.
  • Anti-aging. Allows the old tree to renew itself as it stimulates the growth of new branches. If the annual growth of shoots is 10-15 cm, you need to shorten the branches in order to awaken the adventitious and dormant buds. This should be done in early autumn, late winter and spring.
  • Recovery. This measure allows the plants affected for various reasons to regain the possibility of development, flowering and fruiting.
  • Sanitary. If the plant contains dry, diseased, broken or affected branches, they must be removed. This can be done all year round, but not on frosty days. After cutting off diseased shoots, it is necessary to disinfect the instrument with alcohol.

When doing sanitary pruning, consider the size and age of the tree. Very intensive work can lead to thickening of the crown.

Amazing results can be achieved with trimming. For example, this trellis is formed from apple trees that have been cut for decorative purposes.

Features of winter pruning

The only limitation of pruning fruit trees in winter: it is undesirable in frost, when the wood becomes especially fragile. Branches at such a time are easy to damage, and they heal poorly. If the air temperature drops below 8 degrees below zero, pruning work should be postponed.

Pruning in winter has its advantages, since there are no leaves on the tree and the crown with all its defects is clearly visible

The benefits of pruning in winter:

  • trees at rest will experience less stress;
  • the slices are better and more accurate.

The complete absence of foliage allows you to objectively assess the condition of the crown, identify its shortcomings and draw up the correct work plan.

You need a saw to cut thick branches. To prevent injury to the branches by scoring, the branches are pre-sawed from the opposite side. Thin branches are cut with pruning shears.

Spring pruning features

Spring mass pruning of fruit trees, as many believe, can be carried out only during the period when sap flow has not yet begun. In fact, for spring pruning, you need to choose a moment when there is no sap flow, but it is ready to begin just about.

What is it for? In order for the wounds on the tree to heal faster and cause him less trouble later, it is necessary that the tissues be in a state of readiness. The timing of pruning different fruit trees in spring is different. Thanks to this feature, you can plan this procedure in order to be in time before the sap flow.

If, after pruning, cover the wound with garden varnish, yellow clay mixed with cow dung or oil paint, then 12-15 days after the start of sap flow, kalyus will grow. The pruning procedure must be carried out on a warm day, when the air temperature will be from -5 ° C.

And spring is also considered the most favorable time for grafting fruit trees, read about this:

Shrubs that will bloom in spring cannot be cut off in the spring. This is especially true for plants, flower buds on which are formed only on last year's branches. Otherwise, you can deprive yourself of their wonderful spring bloom.

Features of autumn pruning

Autumn pruning of fruit trees is poorly tolerated by most of them. Cherries, pears, or plums that are pruned in the fall may simply die. If there is no urgent need, it is better to postpone this procedure until spring.

Autumn pruning can also be disastrous for newly planted plants. If a one-year increment is affected by shortening, then not only the cut site can freeze, but also a significant area around it, including cadmium and bark. In such conditions, there is no need to talk about the successful overgrowing of the wound.

The material on the rules for the autumn whitewashing of fruit tree trunks will also be useful:

In the fall, predominantly sanitary pruning of trees should be done, because there is a long winter ahead, which is better for the plant to meet without unnecessary injuries

A tree covered with wounds is unlikely to overwinter well. The buds remaining on the shortened branches of a seedling planted this year may not open well in spring. These caveats are especially true for those who live in the middle lane. Autumn pruning can be done at an air temperature of -5 ° C and warmer.

However, all of the above does not apply to sanitary pruning. If the tree has branches affected by the disease, they must be removed immediately. You cannot wait until the disease covers an entire tree or several trees. The branches removed during such pruning must certainly be burned.

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If the tree has not been pruned for several years, a large number of branches may need to be removed. But it is not advisable to do this at a time. It is best to prune these trees over a period of several years.

Autumn pruning of fruit trees

When pruning fruit trees, it is very easy to damage the plant, especially when pruning young trees. therefore when starting pruning, you need to be clearly aware of which branch and why exactly it needs to be deleted.

When pruning fruit trees, you must adhere to the basic rules:

  1. For one cut you cannot remove a large number of large branches at once... This can significantly weaken the tree and even cause disease or death in the future.
  2. Branches with signs of disease broken off or dry are always removed first.
  3. After removing large branches tree wounds must be covered with garden varnish.
  4. Always try to use a sharp and high quality tool, with a blunt instrument, you can inflict lacerations that will heal for a long time in the future.
  5. Try to use only clean tools, firstly, it is easier for them to work, and secondly, a dirty tool can harm the plant.
  6. When pruning tall trees try to use ladders and stepladders... Or a special tool designed for cutting branches at a height. Climbing the branches of trees is not recommended, this action can cause serious damage to the tree.

Pruning fruit trees

Pruning is the complete or partial removal of shoots and branches, a way of caring for ornamental and fruit shrubs and trees, serving to regulate their development, growth and fruiting. In addition to the formative function, pruning also performs sanitary - it thinns the crown and frees a tree or bush from branches that endanger the health of the plant and endanger its longevity. And if the tree has entered old age, then rejuvenating pruning done in time will give it new strength and prolong the years, practically without reducing the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the harvest.

Pruning of trees is done both in spring and autumn, in some cases trees are pruned even in summer. Let's make a reservation right away: autumn pruning of trees is permissible only in areas with mild, cold winters, and in the northern regions this procedure is best done in the spring, since the frosts that come soon after autumn pruning lead to freezing of the bark at the cut sites and dry out the wood, which, as a rule, leads to death of plants. There are types of fruit trees that are pruned every year, or even twice a year, and there are those that do not need annual pruning.

Each agricultural technique has its own rules, and tree pruning is no exception. When to prune trees of certain types and how pruning of fruit trees in autumn is carried out are the topics of our conversation.

  • Features of pruning trees and shrubs in the fall

    The scheme according to which fruit trees are cut in autumn is as follows. The crown of trees is thinned out. This provides the plant with better ventilation and UV saturation.

    For seedlings, this procedure is carried out annually until the crown is fully formed. Only a few main branches are left on the trunk, all the rest of the young growth is removed.

    For old trees, crown thinning is usually done every two years. All shoots that do not grow properly are removed. For example, straight up or down, intertwining with each other.

    The shortening method is used so that the branches of the trees grow in the right direction, allowing the crown to form correctly. To do this, the branches are shortened to a bud, which will ensure the growth of the shoot in the desired direction. The branches of fruit trees should be parallel to the ground. This greatly facilitates plant maintenance and harvesting.

    In addition, it will be correct to remove all diseased, lichen-covered branches. It is best to do this in the fall. With the onset of cold weather, such shoots make the tree especially sensitive to frost. Accordingly, the plant will tolerate wintering much worse.

    Do not leave dry branches either. With strong gusts of wind, they can break and damage the fruit-bearing branches.

    It is best to use a garden hacksaw to remove dried out shoots. Remember that dry branches are removed mainly down to living woody tissue.

    Garden, vegetable garden and flower garden tips

    Spring pruning of trees, shrubs and flowers. Video compilation

    It's March - the last time to do a rejuvenating tree pruning, if you didn't have time to do it in the fall. Prune trees and shrubs before the beginning of the period of sap flow, that is, the deadline is March or early April. And if it gets warmer in your area earlier, accordingly, the terms need to be shifted.

    Spring pruning of trees and shrubs

    Theoretically, you can prune trees in winter, but you should not do this in frosts, when the branches are fragile and with caps of snow on the crown, so pruning is usually done in autumn and spring. Anti-aging and thinning pruning should be done every 3 years.

    More information about the timing, types and general rules of pruning is described here in this article, it would be good to carefully study the main mistakes of gardeners when pruning (it's better to learn from strangers, right?),
    and below you will find a selection of interesting videos that tell and show how to properly prune trees and shrubs in the spring.

    1. Spring pruning, “Good advice” program. An experienced specialist Sergey Gandrabur shows in detail all the nuances of branch pruning.

    Have you noticed that Sergey uses special cropping tools? You will need them too. What exactly and for what, the material will tell in detail Choosing tools for cropping.

    You can choose tools for pruning trees and shrubs in our catalog, which combines the offers of large garden online stores. Select tools.

    2. Rules for spring pruning in the "Garden and Vegetable Garden" program. The action takes place in the Botanical Garden of Moscow University.

    3. About spring pruning, you can also learn a lot of interesting things from the transfer of the cycle "Calendar of the gardener and the gardener"... Famous Russian gardener Alexander Sidelnikov shares tips on pruning.

    4. A very detailed and interesting film "How to properly prune an apple tree"With Nikolai Rabushko.

    And this material will come in handy - knowledge will never be superfluous: Pruning an apple tree.

    5. For flower lovers, we recommend reading the most useful material Pruning roses and video «Spring pruning of roses"From the Garden Center Greensad based on the program" Roses in the Garden ".

    6. You will find the nuances of cutting and trimming hedges in this article. And in the next video you can watch practical techniques. spring pruning of ornamental shrubs by examples.

    Those who are interested in the nuances of pruning ornamental shrubs of specific species can find additional information in these publications:

    • Pruning ornamental trees and shrubs
    • Pruning ornamental shrubs: A to B
    • Pruning ornamental shrubs: G to Z
    • Pruning ornamental shrubs: from I to K
    • Pruning ornamental shrubs: L to N
    • Pruning ornamental shrubs: from O to C
    • Pruning ornamental shrubs: from F to Z
    • "Hairstyle" for buddleya: features of spring pruning
    • Pruning hydrangea
    • Pruning panicle hydrangea
    • Pruning a tree hydrangea
    • Pruning summer-flowering spirits

    I hope these video tips will help those who have not yet started spring maintenance of their garden, but are planning to do pruning in the near future :)

  • Watch the video: When is the best time to prune trees?

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