Currant is a perennial berry shrub plant that can be found in every summer cottage or in the garden. Both old and small know about the benefits and healing properties of these berries. The culture is very popular among gardeners for its ability to withstand frosty winters and grow in almost any soil. The plant is unpretentious in care, does not require special attention and a lot of time to maintain. With regular watering, top dressing and soil care, currants are able to bear fruit and bring large and high-quality harvests on average within one and a half to two decades. Under favorable conditions, some varieties grow up to two meters in height and give a whole vitamin pantry of berries.
Due to its unpretentiousness, the berry culture will lay a certain number of fruit buds even without proper care and give some kind of minimum yield. If you leave the growth and development of berry bushes to chance, then in the end the annual yields will become less and less, and the taste characteristics of the fruits will be at the lowest level. As a result, fruiting will stop after a few years, and the shrub will have to be uprooted. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to take care of the currant bushes in the autumn and carry out timely preparatory measures for a favorable wintering of plants.
Pruning is recommended after leaf fall. Trimble:
For this procedure, gardening shears or a sharp knife are usually used, as well as a hacksaw (for thick branches). Pruning is carried out every year in autumn and contributes to the full development of currant crops and an abundant harvest of berries.
The preparation of currant bushes for winter also includes special soil cultivation under the bushes, which must also be carried out after leaf fall. It is very important for berry crops that the soil is kept moist, and its air permeability only increases. Such conditions for plants can be created by loosening and digging the soil on the site, as well as by applying a mulch layer.
It is recommended to dig up a plot of land near currant bushes only if there is a lot of silt in the soil or the soil has become heavy and strongly compacted. On beds with light soil, loosening to a shallow depth will be sufficient.
Digging is also necessary to introduce various dressings into the soil. For example, in the autumn, these are fertilizing with potassium and phosphorus content, but not nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Organic fertilizing introduced in the autumn months also has a beneficial effect on berry plants.
When carrying out the loosening procedure, you must be very careful not to damage the nearby roots of currant bushes. The fibrous root part of berry crops is located at a depth of ten to forty centimeters on average, and only some roots go deeper into the ground by one and a half meters. The main root system of berry plants is located horizontally, and individual roots grow in different directions from the shrub at a distance of 1.5 to 5 meters. It is because of this arrangement of the currant root system that loosening is recommended to be carried out carefully so as not to accidentally hook on the thin parts of the roots.
The optimal loosening depth directly under the crop is 5-8 cm, behind the diameter of the currant crown - 10-15 cm. The most suitable tools for this procedure are hand soil rippers, rakes, hoes, hoes and garden forks.
The third obligatory stage of the autumn tillage is its mulching. Such a useful protective layer with a thickness of about 10 cm consists only of fresh organic matter (the summer layer must be removed) - these are sawdust, food waste, seed husks, peat, compost, chopped straw. True, with straw, mice may appear, which are attracted by its aroma.
The mulching layer will warm the root system of currant bushes in severe frosts and help maintain the necessary soil moisture for a long period.
Soil cultivation in the form of digging and loosening helps to get rid of various pests that remain for the winter in the ground under currant bushes near the root part. In early spring, they can cause considerable damage to crops and leave gardeners without a crop. In order for uninvited guests not to come to the berry beds in early spring, it is necessary to get rid of the mulch that lay under the bushes all summer in the fall. It can be used for compost or simply dried and burned. But the tops left from the garlic should not be thrown away, but chopped and scattered near the bushes. It will scare away many pests from berry plantings.
If these autumn events are carried out regularly and in a timely manner, then the currants on the site will bring bountiful harvests in every summer season.
Preparing currant bushes for winter
So, how to prepare currant bushes for winter. When should you prune? It can be performed either in the spring or in the fall. It's up to you when to do it. But keep in mind that pruning in the fall has many benefits:
High-quality currant seedlings should have ripe shoots and succulent roots. Tear off all the leaves on the seedling, and if the roots are dry, lower them before planting in a bucket with a solution of ground insecticide, for example, Aktara - this will prevent damage to the roots by gnawing insects (wireworms, May beetles and others). Before planting, seedlings with succulent roots are dipped in a mash, consisting of 3 liters of water, 6 g of Aktara, 1-2 bags of Kornevin, 1 kg of clay and 1 kg of black soil. The talkers made according to this recipe should be enough for 15-20 currant seedlings.
A plot for currants is chosen flat, protected from the wind, with the occurrence of groundwater no higher than 1-1.5 m from the surface - currants do not tolerate wet soil and prolonged stagnation of water. Not suitable for growing crops and areas overgrown with wheatgrass. The best predecessors for currants are vegetables and flowers, perennial legumes (clover and lupine), mixtures of cereals and legumes, row crops, and after such plants as gooseberries, currants and raspberries, currants cannot be grown.
The best soil for currants is light to medium loam and cohesive sandy loam soils. Clay soils dry out poorly in spring, there is little air in them, it is difficult to keep them in a loose state, therefore, plants develop on them very slowly. In sandy soils, on the contrary, there is too much air, they do not retain moisture well, and plants suffer from drought and lack of nutrition.
3-4 weeks before planting, a deep digging of the site is carried out with the removal of the rhizomes of perennial weeds and the subsequent leveling and loosening of the surface. For digging, add 6-8 kg of humus or compost, 40-50 g of superphosphate and 20-30 g of potassium fertilizer to each m² of the plot.
Currants are a common shrub in the garden. Berries of sweet and sour taste and delicate aroma like to feast on fresh or used to make healthy fruit drinks. However, in order for a plant to produce a crop, it needs at least a little care. So, for example, in the fall, do not forget about preparing the currants for winter.
In early autumn, we recommend taking up the prevention of diseases and insect pests. Start by digging and loosening the soil around the trunk circle and removing weeds. After that, sprinkle ash on the ground. At the same time, it will become an excellent fertilizer. You can disinfect the soil with one of the solutions:
For currants, preparation for winter includes the application of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, which are the key to the future harvest next year. In a bucket of water, you can dissolve a tablespoon of chlorine-free potassium and superphosphate. The solution is poured over the bush. Keep in mind that fertilizers increase the flow of sap, and it will take time to slow it down. Therefore, in order for the plant to have time to hibernate, feeding should be carried out no later than mid-October.
An indispensable point in preparing the shrub for the cold is pruning the shoots. The first step is to remove the yellowed leaves, which are not needed at all by the branches. The foliage should be removed from the site or burned.
Pruning involves the following steps:
As soon as the first frosts come to your region, and the soil is covered with a crunchy layer, it's time to move on to the last stage of preparing currants for winter in the fall - shelter from the cold. The trunks and branches of the plant are first wrapped with twine, trying to carefully bring them closer to each other. At the same time, do not connect the parts of the bush as much as possible, so as not to break fragile branches. Then the plant is tilted towards the ground and spirally wrapped. They cover the currants with what they found on the farm: an old blanket, a wooden box or box, spruce branches. If there is a lot of snow, use it as a great cover for the currants.
More than 200 varieties of black currant have been registered in Russia. This berry is loved for its excellent taste and patience with human mistakes and experiments! ☻ And due to the presence of a huge amount of vitamin C (per 100 grams of berries 181 mg), black currant is indispensable for sick people. The peculiarity of red currant is that its berries contain many antioxidants - an “army of resistance” to cancer cells. Read in this section about proper cultivation, planting, care, currant pruning and more.
In order to prepare the currants for severe frosts, you should:
Branches 1 year old give a bountiful harvest. Less abundant - 2 to 3 years. 4-year-old branches take away strength from the currant bushes, because of this, the harvest will be smaller in the future.
Plants begin to ache. It is necessary to perform rejuvenating pruning in order to thin out the bushes, increase fruiting in the future and allow the stems to "bask" in the sun.
When the bushes are too thick, the sun does not penetrate into this thicket, and the plants begin to ache. Extra branches not only suck the health and energy of the currant, but also prevent new "fresh" shoots from fully developing.
Cutting currants in the fall is necessary at a certain time - it is important to wait until the bushes drop their yellow leaves. This procedure is done no earlier than in mid-September - early October. Gardeners advise pruning in late autumn.
Pros of cutting currants in the fall:
Use an exceptionally sharp pruner rather than pulling branches out with your hands (tip: get a special garden pruner with long handles for convenience).
What branches need to be cut:
Mulching - covering the soil in order to insulate it and preserve the roots of various plants.
Typically used as mulch:
It is necessary to cover the ground only in warm weather in the fall, while the soil is still warm. Otherwise, there will be no effect from this procedure. And currant bushes will grow more slowly in the spring.
It is important to mulch the ground only on warm days (early fall). Currants can withstand severe frosts down to -28. But at very low temperatures, it is recommended to mulch the soil.
In the fall, you need to take care of the currants. Caring for currants in the fall consists in carrying out the last feeding, processing against pests and diseases, pruning bushes and preparing for winter.
The first two points of autumn care are recommended to be performed in September, while there is still no strong cold snap, and pruning of currant bushes and preparation for winter can be left for October - early November.
Autumn care for currants:
1. If you did not fertilize the currants at the end of summer, then it is not too late to do so in September. To ripen shoots and increase winter hardiness, plants need potassium and phosphorus, so we feed the currants with any phosphorus-potassium composition, without chlorine. You can buy a special autumn fertilizer for berry bushes or use superphosphate and potassium sulfate. For one adult currant bush, take 40-50 grams of superphosphate and 20-30 grams. potash fertilizer. Instead of mineral fertilizer, you can use wood ash, 1 glass for each bush.
Fertilizers for currants can be scattered around the bush and embedded in the soil by shallow digging or loosening to a depth of 5-10 cm.There is an easier way to feed garden crops, you need to stick a shovel along the growth of branches to a depth of 10 cm and pour an incomplete spoonful of fertilizer into the resulting depression, after the deepening, cover with earth. In total, you need to make 6-8 holes around the perimeter of the currant bush. You can feed the apple trees in the same way, the description is here.
2. Treatment of currants from diseases and pests should be done while temperatures remain above zero, with a cold snap, the effectiveness of some drugs decreases, and pests hide for the winter.
Currants must be processed after harvest from powdery mildew, rust, gray rot, anactorosis and other diseases... You can carry out a general processing of the garden in September, when all berries, apples, pears, grapes are harvested, during this period you can not be afraid to use chemicals. I usually buy a systemic fungicide, spread it according to the instructions and spray all the bushes, as well as the ground around, on a quiet clear evening.
A couple of days after treatment for diseases, it is necessary to do pest treatment... For this purpose, buy a strong insecticide, for example Actellik, Karbofos, Aktara. Means of biological protection against pests at this time are already ineffective, but the chemical preparation will quickly destroy the remaining individuals, which the larvae lay for the winter.
3. The main pruning of currants is best done in the fall., since in the spring the buds open quickly and are easy to break off. Rejuvenating pruning of currant bushes begins to be done from the age of 5.
The main crop of black currant gives on the growth of the last year, and new shoots give better branches with an age of 2-3 years. On old branches, the growth is 15 cm or less, and the shoots grow thinner and weaker. Old unproductive branches need to be cut annually, making room for the development of young branches.
The old branches of the currant are the thickest in appearance, every year they are more and more inclined to the ground, their bark is dark brown, and the young branches on them are thin, no more than 15 cm long.Young shoots of this year have a light brown or gray color of the bark ...