Well in the country: do-it-yourself well drilling technology on sand


Nothing complicates the life of a summer resident more than the lack of a large amount of water. In the warm season, during the rush of the dacha, its deficiency is especially felt: it is necessary for the shower and pool, for watering the garden and garden, just to cook lunch or do laundry. A familiar well, or even better - a deep well in the yard of the house can save the situation. But, unfortunately, hiring a team and renting equipment will cost a pretty penny. However, it turns out that a hand-made well in the country is a very real thing. We invite you to figure out how to do everything correctly on your own.

Types of downhole structures

Wells are of various types depending on the design features, installation depth and characteristics of the extracted water, but only two types are suitable for drilling in a suburban area:

  • sandy (or sand);
  • artesian (or limestone).

Do-it-yourself material about the device of a needle-well may also be useful: https://diz-cafe.com/voda/abissinskij-kolodec-svoimi-rukami.html

Both types of wells are suitable for giving, artesian and sandy, but only the sandy version can be made independently, without the use of technology

The name of the species speaks for itself: the designated rocks are present in the aquifer - either sand or limestone. In addition, both species differ in depth. Sand wells are drilled to a depth of 50 m, and artesian ones - up to 200 m. It becomes clear that limestone wells cannot be drilled on their own, therefore, for summer cottages, the best option is a sandy look.

Wells "on the sand" and "limestone" differ not only in the depth of drilling of the mine, but also in its diameter, as well as in the size of the casing

First you need to determine the parameters of the occurrence of groundwater. Before contacting a specialist, you can ask your neighbors how deep their wells are. If the parameters do not exceed 25 meters, there is a chance to drill a well on your own.

The location of the well is chosen not far from the house, and sometimes the mine is laid directly in the utility room or an extension connected to the cottage

Mechanisms for independent well construction

Usually, special drilling equipment is used for drilling a well, so a completely natural question arises: how to drill a well in the country without using it? It turns out that there is a simple manual mechanism consisting of an oil rig and a column suspended from it. Let's consider in more detail the individual parts of the equipment.

The base is a tower resembling a tripod. The material for the supports is either metal pipes or logs, connected at the top with a pivot. The block for lifting the drill string is also located there. The two legs of the tower are connected by a winch (collar).

The design of the drilling equipment may vary. In some cases, if the water-resistant layer lies close to the surface of the earth, a hand drill is sufficient.

The drill column is the main functional element. It consists of several three-meter rods connected by couplings. Sometimes a length of one and a half meters is enough. It is the column that is immersed in the ground, and its length is adjusted with the help of rods. Replacement of special equipment are water pipes equipped with steel couplings.

Drill heads must be selected based on the nature of the soil. The most commonly used ones are: 1 - "spoon", 2 - "coil", 3 - "chisel", 4 - "bailer"

The percussion or cutting element is the drill head. It is screwed onto the column using a threaded adapter. In the process of lowering the head into the soil, the soil fills the cavities of the drill. For different types of rocks, different nozzles are used: a spoon is suitable for soft ground, a coil for dense, a chisel for hard rocks. The loosened soil is taken out with a thief.

To prevent the walls of the well from sprinkling, casing pipes are used - as a rule, these are ordinary plastic plumbing products, lightweight and convenient for installation. The bottom of the pipe is a kind of shoe with a smooth or serrated edge at the bottom.

There are two main types of casing shoe: a - toothed (cutter), b - smooth. Cutting area: 1 - teeth, 2 - smooth edge

Thus, the well construction is carried out using special equipment, some of which can be purchased in a store, and some can be made independently.

You can find out how to find water for a well here: https://diz-cafe.com/voda/kak-najti-vodu-dlya-skvazhiny.html

Preparatory stage - pit construction

The top layer of the soil is prone to shedding, so the well is protected with a special structure - a pit, in other words, a pit one and a half by one and a half meters, the depth of which is no more than 2 meters. Planks are used to strengthen the walls, they also line the floor. The strength of the floor depends on the thickness of the boards, therefore, products are used no thinner than 5 cm. From above, the pit is closed with a second flooring.

Sand pits are small and shallow, while artesian pits go several meters into the ground.

Then the holes are prepared in the following order:

  • a rig for drilling is being erected;
  • remove the top flooring;
  • find the center point on the bottom deck;
  • make a hole, the diameter of which coincides with the shoe and couplings;
  • cut out the second hole - in the upper deck.

The precision of the vertical created by the two pilot holes guarantees quality drilling.

When and where is it better to drill a well on the site: https://diz-cafe.com/voda/kogda-i-gde-luchshe-burit-skvazhinu-na-uchastke.html

Drilling process: sequence of actions

If you prepare the necessary equipment and follow the sequence of stages, there will be no questions about how to make a well correctly. The finished drilling rig is equipped with a head and a winch-like mechanism. The bar is passed through both holes down, if necessary, build it up and secure the gate. Usually two people rotate the gate, and a third person is needed to correct the position of the bar.

If the well is shallow, then only a drill string is used, directing it down strictly vertically. A tripod with a hoist is necessary for wells with great depth.

A mark is placed on the column, departing from the upper flooring 60-70 cm. Having lowered the column to the indicated distance, it is removed back, removing the rock raised together with the drill. Submerge the cleaned column in the same manner several times. Greater depth requires barbell extensions. For this, another pipe is connected with the help of a coupling.

Depending on the stability of the soil, the drilling method is chosen - with or without casing pipes. With stable, dense soil, you can drill the entire well without using the casing. The crumbling rocks indicate that after 2-3 meters, a pipe equipped with a shoe should be installed. The diameter of the pipe is wider than the diameter of the couplings, so it is difficult for the pipe to enter the shaft. Sometimes, to place it there, a screw or a sledgehammer is used.

Products for laying a water supply system are used as casing pipes - metal or polypropylene pipes of the required diameter for outdoor work

If rocks are crumbling, a landslide should be avoided. For this purpose, the drill is not lowered too low - below the end of the casing at a certain distance. Usually it is equal to half the length of the drill. Thus, the process consists in alternating drilling and installation of casing pipes, which are built up as the dive progresses.

Preparation of the structure for operation

The end of drilling is the moment when the drill reaches the waterproof layer. The well is thoroughly cleaned with a thief nozzle, and a filter is installed at the bottom, which will serve as a barrier to retain mechanical impurities. A metal mesh with a fine mesh or a perforated pipe with a small gap can act as a filter grate.

The well filter consists of the following parts: 1 - perforated pipe, 2 - holes of the required diameter, 3 - wire winding, 4 - metal mesh

Having equipped the inner part of the well, equip and decorate its aboveground part. To do this, remove the boards of both decking, dismantle the pit wall cladding and backfill. To pump out water from the well, a pump (submersible or surface) is installed. The upper part of the building is decorated with decor. A variety of design ideas will do, from a simple head shed to a gazebo or fake well. One option is to install a crane.

You can learn how to make a head for a well with your own hands from the material: https://diz-cafe.com/voda/ogolovok-dlya-skvazhiny-svoimi-rukami.html

Here are two examples of how you can equip a well in your country house:

Beautiful and original design of the well - a small decorative well made of wood, very reminiscent of the real one. The design of the decor can be different

To mask mines, wells, wells, decor is made of artificial stone. In appearance, it resembles a natural element - a stone or a large stump

Methods for eliminating wellbore blockages

Groundwater, like any other, has impurities, so over time, the well will clog. The onset of the cleaning time is signaled by an inconsistent flow of supplied water.

Cleansing methods are varied, while using special mechanisms and substances:

  • Water compressor. Sand and silt deposits are easily removed with a high pressure water jet.
  • Air compressor. Effective for removing soft particles such as sludge. Using a vacuum plug, blow through the pipe along its entire length.
  • Explosion. Artificial creation of a short circuit, as a result of which a bottle of gunpowder, lowered to the bottom of the well, explodes. The blast wave breaks the blockage.
  • Acid. It is used with caution as it can damage the filter or pipes. Acid is introduced into the pipe, left for two days, then water is pumped until complete purification.

For more information on how to clean up a well during silting, read: https://diz-cafe.com/voda/kak-prochistit-skvazhinu-svoimi-rukami.html

By equipping a water well in the country, you can provide the house, vegetable garden and garden with the required amount of water, and with low material costs.

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First of all, you should get to know your neighbors and find out how they solved the water supply issue. If they already have wells on the sites, look at their locations. It is possible that the neighbors use imported water. In this case, you will need to study the soil layers on the site. Research results are usually invested in a construction project. From the documents, you will learn the level of occurrence of the aquifer and the line of the flow of surface groundwater.

The next step is to determine the location of the well to be drilled in the country. The simplest and most commonly used method for finding water is the framework method or the rod method. A man holds two curved metal wires in his outstretched hands. Trying not to change the position of the hands, he moves around the site. In the place where the underground key flows closest to the surface, the wires will begin to twist and cross. Having determined the place of drilling, it is necessary to choose the type of wells for water that suits you.

The correct choice of the location, depth and materials of the well in the country is a guarantee of obtaining sufficient clean drinking water.


Well drilling in the country. Issue price, main types of wells

The simplest is to order all the necessary work, but this is also the most expensive option. For example, the cost of drilling 1 linear meter of a well with a diameter of 133 mm will be from 1,700 rubles. This price also includes piping, including pumping to clean water. Also, the price will differ depending on what type of well you want.

The most common are two:

  • filter well
  • artesian.

The first option is usually drilled to a depth of 15-30 m to the nearest aquifer (sandy). The borehole diameter will be 127-133 mm and will last about 6-8 years. It can be done quickly enough, in just 1-2 days.

Of the minuses, a high probability of siltation can be distinguished, which is due to the short service life. However, this is theory, from practice and numerous reviews, such a well can last 15 years.

This option is suitable for those who plan to use water for 1-2 people or only for the needs of the site - to water the garden, knead the solution, etc. The amount of water that the filter well can give is not enough for a country house where there is a shower, toilet, sink and other sources of water consumption.

This is due to the fact that the sand layer has a low level of fluid loss and filter capacity. Of course, you can use a low-power vibration pump, but you will not get the required level of water supply.

Artesian well construction will cost you more, however, the water quality will also be much higher. Its depth will be 20-200 m with a diameter of 133-159 mm, which is due to drilling to the calcareous aquifer. This is a difficult job, which will take up to 5 days, but it is worth it, because the service life will delight you - about 50 years!

A deep well pump is also being installed, which has a high performance. An artesian well is fully capable of meeting all the needs of the inhabitants of the house, its capacity is up to 50 cubic meters. m. of water per hour.

It is up to you to decide which option is more suitable for you. However, for a summer cottage, which you visit only a few times a week during the summer season, a filter well device is quite enough. In addition, you can significantly save money and drill a well in the country with your own hands, and not order work from a specialized company.


Drilling tools and equipment

The arrangement of various types of wells involves the use of different equipment. For example, in the case of artesian ones, one cannot do without the use of professional drilling rigs. If we are talking about a smaller well, then the simplest winch and tripod will do.

It will be problematic to get started without a special drilling tool for the water supply. It helps to penetrate the soil easier and faster. If the water supply is done by hand, it is worth getting a metal screw. It is inexpensive, but it is very important that it is made of high quality steel. To equip a well in the country, you will also need pipes of different diameters, a pump and a filter.


Tips on how to drill a well with your own hands: preparation

To begin with, establish the depth of the aquifer. You should consult with your neighbors in this matter. If they did not pierce the wells, then you should trust the specialists.

To drill a well, you will need special tools. To equip a source of great depth, you will need special equipment - drilling rigs. For small wells, a tripod and a winch are used.

Drilling Rig Components:

  • Drill or coil
  • Column for drilling
  • Drilling rods
  • Column tube.

In addition, for the arrangement of the well, a caisson, a pump, plumbing pipes, a casing and filters will be required. You should also stock up on a shovel. All the necessary elements and tools should be prepared in advance.


Borehole casing

For wellbore casing, steel pipes are the best option. Polymer is suitable to collect, but in terms of strength when buried in the ground, they are not very good. Again, it is not hydraulics that will push the casing into the well, but manual efforts, and light plastic pipes into manual production are not at all easy to bury.

The casing is assembled from separate links, approximately 2 m long. More is possible, but it will be inconvenient to install them into the wellbore while drilling. Therefore, although there will be many connections in the casing, it is better to use a suitable size for the job.

The first link is established after two / three walks. Then it is gradually pushed through, placing a bar on top to apply its own strength and weight. When drilling with the rotary method, the casing is deepened following the extraction of the tool with the soil. The use of the percussion-rope method in loose rocks forces the casing to be deepened with some advance of the shell, otherwise the drill will endlessly scoop the layer without moving down.

Casing installation is carried out simultaneously with excavation drilling. Pipes are connected by thread or by welding. The upsetting for the duration of the work is fixed with a clamp

Casing links are connected by welding or threaded couplings, but it is best to initially select pipes with threads. As they deepen, it is easier and more convenient to screw them on than to constantly cook and check the seam for defects.


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