One name "Korean fir" means that it is a tree from Korea. On Jeju Island, almost all forests are composed of these trees. This evergreen plant has a dense, conical crown and can grow up to 15 meters in height. Developing in favorable conditions, it can live 150 years or more. Such favorable conditions are:
Korean fir grows rather slowly - its annual growth is 3-5 cm. In the wild, it grows mainly in the mountains, preferring heights from 1000 to 2000 meters. Mature trees are covered with red-brown bark and have saber-curved dark green needles 10-15 cm long. Ripe cones are purple-purple in color and look like a cylinder 5-7 cm long and 2-3 cm wide.
This tree is equipped with a strong root system that goes deep into the ground. Otherwise it is impossible - mountain, rocky slopes, constant "raids" of monsoons. Growing in such difficult conditions without a proper root system simply cannot survive. It can be found in mixed forests. The Korean fir was first classified in 1907.
Despite the fact that her homeland is Korea, she does well in the middle lane. This evergreen tree looks great in any season, and therefore it is successfully used in the organization of landscape design. Due to its slow growth, a thirty-year-old fir grows to a height of no more than 3 meters, and therefore retains its crown shape for a long time, formed by natural or artificial means. Along with the usual fir, there are its decorative forms, of small stature, which are successfully used by amateur gardeners for landscaping their summer cottages.
It looks good against the background of coniferous and deciduous plantings. Good neighbors of Korean fir can be - birch, barberry, maple, thuja, pine, spruce, cypress, juniper. Low-growing and dwarf varieties can be planted in tubs or used for landscaping rocky areas. This tree does not tolerate urban conditions, as it is sensitive to polluted air, but it develops without problems outside the city. It is recommended to use ordinary fir varieties in single plantings, and use undersized and dwarf varieties in groups. Living barriers can be formed using this tree.
When planting fir, it is necessary to take into account that seedlings from 5 to 10 years of age take root best of all. For planting, a landing pit is formed with a width of 50x50 cm and a depth of 60-80 cm. If the soil is heavy, then drainage must be provided. To do this, a layer of crushed stone or broken brick about 20 cm thick is poured onto the bottom of the pit. To fill the pit, a substrate is prepared from a mixture of clay, earth, humus, peat and sand (2: 3: 1: 1). Be sure to add mineral fertilizer (nitroammofoska), somewhere between 200-300 grams and about ten kg of sawdust. When planting, you need to control that the root collar remains at ground level.
After planting, the seedlings need moisture, especially during dry periods. It is watered at the rate of 15-20 liters of water per plant 2-3 times and, if necessary (especially in heat), the crown is sprayed (sprinkled). In the 3rd year after planting, "Kemiro wagon" is introduced at the rate of 150 grams per square meter in the spring. Fir is a moisture-loving tree, but it does not tolerate excess moisture. During growth, you should constantly loosen the soil to a depth of 25-30 cm and mulch it. Sawdust, wood chips or peat are suitable for mulch, which is covered with a layer of 5 cm to 8 cm in the trunk circles. The plant, although frost-resistant, but in the first year of planting, it must be protected from severe frosts by covering it with spruce branches or other auxiliary material. In the future, when the tree gets stronger, such protection is not required.
Fir crown formation is not artificially required, but it may be necessary, especially after branches are damaged as a result of late spring frosts. In this case, the damaged branches are removed and it may be necessary to correct the growth of the crown.
It propagates by seeds and cuttings. Seeds are harvested at the beginning of their ripening. You can sow in autumn or spring, but before that they must be stratified. For this, the seeds are kept for 30-40 days at a certain temperature, which contributes to a faster germination of seeds. When planting in the spring, you can resort to snowing. For this purpose, snow is compacted at a certain place and seeds are placed on the compacted snow.
Then the seeds are covered with straw and a plastic wrap is placed on top. Then all this is again covered with snow. For propagation by cuttings, annual shoots with a bud at the top of the shoot are selected. When propagated by cuttings, the crown of the future tree is formed independently. The first 10 years, the cuttings grow very slowly, then a little faster, and so it continues to grow further.
Fir belongs to the pine family, and this genus has more than 50 species that are common in the temperate zone of the mountainous regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Here are its main types:
Many experts believe that of the pine family, the fir is one of the most beautiful trees.
Today, a large number of various ornamental plants are grown on personal plots. Previously, such trees and shrubs were rare. Today the market offers a huge selection of different plants. They are adapted to the peculiarities of the domestic climate.
Ornamental trees and shrubs can decorate the landscape, bring novelty and originality to the design. One of these plants is Korean fir. The features of growing and caring for this tree will be discussed below.
The most commonly used types and their garden forms.
Balsam fir (Abies bahamea) is the most common species of the genus in North America. More than other fir is resistant to waterlogging. Lives up to 150-200 years. Reaches 15-25 m in height.
The root system, unlike other species of the genus, does not lie too deep, so a strong wind can knock down trees. It is frost-resistant and has a rather fast growth. The first bumps appear at the age of 20-30.
It is used for group and single landings. The species is unsuitable for cultivation in the southern regions, where it suffers from a lack of soil moisture and dry air.
There are a number of decorative forms, including dwarf ('Hudsonia,' Nana '), with bluish needles (' Glauca '), with white-colored needles at the ends (' Argentea '), with yellow-variegated needles (' Variegata '), columnar ('Columnahs), creeping (' Prostrata).
Korean fir (Abies koreana) forms mountain forests in the southern regions of the Korean Peninsula. A tree up to 15 m tall, growing very slowly in the first years of life.
Before ripening, cones become bright, blue, sometimes with a purple tint, and they are already formed by 15-year-old specimens.
Differs in winter hardiness and decorativeness (not too large, bright cones). There are decorative forms: with dark purple cones ('Blue Standard), slow-growing, with short needles and small cones (Brevifolia), undersized, with a round dense crown and silvery needles (' Silberzwerg '), dwarf with a spreading flat crown (' Piccolo ').
The Caucasian fir, or Nordmann (Abies nordmanniana), forms forests in the western part of the Caucasus Mountains and in Turkey. Reaches a height of 60 m with a trunk diameter of 2 m. The crown is narrow, conical. The species is characterized by rapid growth and longevity (lives up to 500 years). Winter hardiness is low, even in adulthood, there are a number of decorative forms (‘Pendula,‘ Aurea ’,‘ Albo-spicata ’,‘ Gtauca ’).
The monochromatic fir (Abies concolor) comes from the mountainous regions of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Reaches a height of 40-60 m, the needles have a bluish tint. It grows rapidly, it can live up to 350 years. Not afraid of strong winds and air smoke, it is very drought-resistant and frost-resistant. Pretty light-requiring.
There are decorative forms: compact tree with blue-white long needles (‘Violacea’), dwarf tree with long blue needles (‘Compacta Glauca).
Korean fir propagates by cuttings or seeds.
They are cooked as soon as they mature. You can sow them both in spring and autumn. Before planting, it is necessary to accelerate their growth (stratification) and keep them at a temperature of 30 - 40 o C. Seeds germinate faster. In the spring, snow can be applied to them. When the snow has just begun to melt, it is brought into the room and tamped well. Seeds are placed directly on a dense cold "blanket". From above they are covered with a layer of straw and a layer of polyethylene. The whole "fur coat" is again covered with a thick layer of snow. All layers must be carefully tamped.
So that the Korean fir grows to the required height and does not die, annual shoots with a single bud at the very top of the seedling are used. The advantage of this method is that the crown of the tree does not need to be shaped. It develops on its own. But there is one drawback. For the first 10 years, Korean fir grows very slowly. But then it accelerates.
This ephedra easily tolerates a transplant, but it is also not worth bothering it too often - constant movement from one place to another can negatively affect growth, and even lead to death.
Therefore, the procedure is carried out only in some cases - if the tree grows poorly and the soil is poor, the root system is damaged by diseases or rotted from excess moisture.
The plant is watered abundantly, dug in at a distance of 50 cm from the central conductor, and gradually removed. Then they examine the underground part - all damaged roots (rotten, eaten away by parasites) are removed, the places of the cuts are irrigated with a solution of copper sulfate, then sprinkled with charcoal.
The transplanting technique is the same as the rules for planting purchased seedlings.
Immediately after planting, the needles need to be watered, shaded from the sun and, for better adaptation in a new place, fed with a complex composition (azophos, superphosphate and potassium nitrate - 15 g per bucket of water).
Monochrome fir Concolor (Abies concolor) is an evergreen tree of the Pine family. The plant received this specific name thanks to the needles, which have a greenish-gray tint on both sides. In nature, this species is found in America, the Far East, Europe, Australia and even Africa. Thanks to its unpretentiousness, frost resistance and a variety of decorative varieties, the one-color fir has gained popularity not only among gardeners, but also among landscape designers.
The monochromatic fir is a slender and sturdy tree
The monochromatic fir is a tall, sturdy tree with a dense pyramidal crown. Under natural conditions, the plant reaches a height of 60 m, but in the garden it rarely exceeds 40 m. The bark of young specimens has a grayish tint. It can be smooth, without build-ups. As it grows, the tree cracks.
The bark of the monochromatic fir is resistant to fire, which is a distinctive feature of this plant.
The cones of a single-colored fir are distinguished by their decorative effect and unusual color.
Another feature of the monochromatic fir is its large oval buds, which are purple with a reddish tint. But they appear quite rarely, since the plant bears fruit no more than 1 time in 2-3 years.
The needles of most varieties of monochromatic fir are larger than those of other species of this plant. The average length of the needles is 7 cm. They are flat, greenish-gray, equally colored on both sides.
Breeders have bred many unusual Concolor fir varieties, which are equally well suited for decorating a personal plot. As a rule, varietal plants reach a height of 9 m and are distinguished by a decorative crown.
Violacea is a popular, tall variety of the solid-colored fir.
The Violacea variety belongs to the tall varieties of Concolor fir and reaches 8 m in height. In the first few years after planting, the tree gives a fairly good growth and forms a fluffy crown.
The needles of this variety are of a silvery-blue hue. Violacea's needles are thornless, soft, with a light lemon scent.
The variety looks good both in single and in group compositions.
The compact variety is diminutive and frost-resistant.
The monochromatic fir Abies Concolor Compact is a low-growing tree, no more than 60 cm high. The plant has a dense crown, long and stiff silvery needles with a bluish tint, small yellowish-green cones (up to 3 cm in diameter) and thick branches with an uneven surface.
The Kompakta variety grows very slowly and adds only about 3 cm per year. But at the same time it is winter-hardy and resistant to exhaust gases.
Compact variety suitable for growing in pots
The Compact variety can be grown not only in a personal plot, but also in a pot on the balcony. In the garden, the plant looks especially impressive in group compositions and becomes their peculiar highlight.
With the onset of cold weather, the greenish needles of the Wintergold variety turn yellow
The Wintergold variety looks very unusual against the background of other varieties of the monochromatic fir. A short tree, which grows by about 20 cm per year, stands out due to the long needles of a greenish-lemon shade. In winter, the needles become deep yellow.
By the age of 30, Wintergold fir reaches a height of about 7 m. Like the Compact variety, this variety is suitable for growing in pots and is used in group plantings.
The needles of the Blue Sapphire variety reach no more than 1 cm in length
The compact Blue Sapphire variety grows up to 30 cm in height. The annual growth is about 2 cm. This type of fir Concolor is distinguished by its short blue needles.
Blue Sapphire Fir is perfect for decorating rocky gardens and alpine slides. This dwarf tree can be grown not only outdoors, but also in a container.
Solid fir seedlings should be planted in open ground at the age of 4 years in mid-spring or early autumn.These plants will thrive in partial shade, in a place protected from the wind. Fir is also demanding on the soil, which should be well-drained, fertile and moderately moist.
On the site, in advance of planting plants, you need to prepare planting pits. Their optimal size is 70x70x70. Pour 2 buckets of water into the prepared wells and wait until it is completely absorbed. Then it is necessary to pour crushed stone into the pits, the layer of which should be no more than 6 cm, and a soil mixture prepared from the following components:
It is also recommended to add 10 kg of sawdust and 250 g of nitroammophoska to each pit.
The root collar should be flush with the surface of the site, as in diagram 4
After 2 weeks, when the soil settles, you can plant the seedlings together with an earthen clod in the prepared holes. Their roots must be straightened out before planting in the ground. At the same time, the root collar of firs should be at the same level with the surface of the garden plot. If you plan to plant fir trees in a row, then the seedlings should be placed at a distance of 4–5 m from each other. When drawing up a group composition, the intervals between them can be reduced to 3 m. After planting, the holes should be filled with the remaining soil mixture, the soil should be compacted and the seedlings should be watered.
It is recommended to plant Concolor fir seeds directly in open ground at the end of the autumn period, without embedding deep into the ground. If desired, they can also be sown in containers in early spring. In this case, the seeds should be planted in boxes with a soil mixture consisting of sand, peat and forest floor, taken in equal proportions. Before planting in containers, it is recommended to keep them for 3 months in damp sand at a temperature not exceeding + 5 ° C. You need to sow seeds superficially, without embedding deep into the ground.
Seedlings of one-color fir can be planted in separate containers a couple of years after sowing.
After 3 years, the seedlings can be moved from boxes to separate containers, and then transplanted into open ground. The planting hole on the site should be 30 cm deeper and 20 cm wider than the container. It should be filled with a potting soil containing the same ingredients as when sowing seeds in boxes. After planting, the seedlings need to be watered and mulched with peat or sawdust.
Monochrome fir needs feeding, mulching and watering. Plant care also includes periodic loosening of the soil and preparation for wintering.
Watering the young Concolor fir should be done using the sprinkling method. It is recommended to carry out this procedure once every 2 weeks. In this case, watering should be completely stopped if seasonal precipitation is consistent with the norm.
Adult specimens do not need watering, since they receive the necessary moisture from the soil.
In the spring, you should feed the one-color fir "Kemira"
The first top dressing should be carried out in the spring, 2 years after planting, using Kemira Universal fertilizer. You need to add about 100 g of funds to the trunk circle. In the autumn, it is also recommended to feed the fir with a complex mineral fertilizer.
The soil around young specimens should be loosened regularly to prevent crust formation and to provide a constant supply of oxygen to the root system. Weeding can be carried out only when necessary, removing weeds from the root.
The first mulching of the trunk circle is carried out immediately after planting. In autumn, the layer of peat or sawdust will need to be increased. With the onset of spring, it should be completely renewed.
In the fall, about 2 weeks before the onset of frost, the adult Concolor fir should be watered, and the seedlings should be thoroughly mulched with organic matter. In regions with severe winters, planting is recommended to be covered with spruce branches or wrapped with covering material.
Unlike other conifers, Conkolor fir tolerates transplantation well. It is recommended to move a tree from one place to another at the age of 5-10 years. Preparation for this procedure should begin in advance, about six months or a year in advance, by drawing a circle with a shovel at a distance of 40 cm from the tree trunk to a depth of 1 bayonet.
On the day that was planned for the transplant, it is necessary to repeat the procedure again with outlining a circle and pry an earthen lump with a shovel. Then the fir should be carefully removed along with the lump, being careful not to damage the root system, and moved to a new place.
One-color fir can be propagated vegetatively or by seed. In the first case, cuttings or layering are used. The vegetative method is good for the propagation of varietal firs, since the seed method may not inherit the characteristics of the parent plant.
Growing from seed takes much more effort and time. It is not recommended to use it for novice gardeners.
Small cuttings cut from yearling shoots are suitable for vegetative propagation.
Propagation by cuttings is recommended as follows:
Plantings need to be aired daily, briefly removing the shelter, and the soil should be moistened as needed. In winter, the containers should be moved to the basement, and with the onset of spring they should be taken outside.
Roots are usually formed in the second year. After sufficient development of the root system, the seedlings can be moved to the site.
The seeds can be harvested by yourself or purchased from a specialty store. Harvesting should begin at the beginning of their maturation. It is advisable to carry out the procedure before the cones begin to disintegrate, and the seeds scatter over considerable distances. The collected cones should be dried and the planting material removed from them. To undergo stratification, the seeds are recommended to be placed in the refrigerator for several months.
Seeds should be planted in open ground in mid-spring in a prepared soil mixture consisting of sand and turf. You need to carry out the procedure as follows:
For the winter, it is recommended to cover the seedlings with spruce branches. In the spring, the plants need to be moved to a permanent location and given proper care.
Concolor fir is susceptible to the development of fungal diseases (white, variegated, red-brown rot). The infection spreads not only to the trunk, but also to the branches of the tree. The development of the disease is indicated by the yellowing of the needles and the falling off of the needles. If the disease was detected at an early stage, then the fir can be saved by treating it with a fungicide (Fundazol, Topsin). If the tree cannot be cured, then it should be cut down and removed from the site in order to avoid the spread of infection.
Hermes fir lays larvae on needles and feeds on it
This plant is susceptible to attacks of fir hermes. The parasites lay larvae and feed on needles. You can get rid of them by spraying with insecticides. In this case, you will also need to cut off the affected fragments of the needles, and treat the trunk and branches of the fir with copper sulfate.
If a spider mite attacked a fir, then a white bloom and cobweb form on its needles
In rare cases, a spider mite attacks the monochromatic fir. It can be recognized by its characteristic cobweb and whitish bloom on the needles. Treatment with Aktofit will help to cure the plant.
Planted solid fir varieties Violacea this spring. I planted it in the sun. blue. The roots were - you can't look without tears. All summer, in dry weather, it was pouring out and raining. Epin and zircon spilled 4 times, probably.
Now the firs have laid a lot of new buds and look pretty good. In general, Korean and monochrome live well with me. I bought the concolor variety 2 years ago. Now a beauty with huge needles. And last fall, in October, they gave me her sister from the same delivery with a height of 1.80 for unsaleability. From the bottom to the half there were bare branches, above - yellowed needles, and only at the very top - a few green-blue needles. Now its top is lush, and on the lower dry branches, blue-green bunches of new needles have appeared at the end.
Korean firs and monochromatic firs winter well without any shelters. True, I have partial shade. For reliability, you can "bonsa" the species fir by pruning. As for the cover with lutrasil, it is good in the presence of a shade or in partial shade. In the sun with the fact that over the snow - big problems.
I bought a small one-color fir - 30 centimeters. It grows practically in the sun. I don’t fertilize. After the first two winters, the ends of the side branches burnt. Let's see what happens this season. As for the density, the specific fir, of course, is more rarefied than any dwarf variety, but it will become thick and fluffy over time.
The single-color fir, with its characteristic aroma and high decorativeness, is perfect for creating hedges, decorating alleys and decorating a personal plot.