Choosing between eco-style and naturgarden, some come to a dead end. They seem to be absolutely identical and are defined by the same principles. In fact, both names mean the same style and are applicable to a natural garden, which recreates the natural forest and field conditions of flora and fauna.
Nature is an outstanding landscape designer! This idea is the main leitmotif in the Naturgarden style. A forest, meadow or savannah can become the prototype of an eco-garden with its own characteristics.
The main characteristics of the natural style:
Eco-style in landscape design is complemented by small architectural forms made of natural materials. Rough wooden furniture - sturdy tables, plank benches and wicker seats - will look good in the utility area. Sheds and gazebos, entwined with weaving plants or covered with thin branches, are indispensable in recreation areas.
Garden paths are lined with saw cut trees, sprinkled with bark or gravel. Bridges over a gaily murmuring stream or a small lake are made of branches, planks and logs. In the barbecue area, a brazier or fireplace is laid out of stones to simulate a halt in nature.
Decorating the site, you can create alpine slides with snags and plants living on rocky soil. Wooden sculptures will fit well into the landscape. Wooden swings and hammocks in the recreation area will also look organic in a natural eco-style.
Eco-garden buildings are usually made of wood or stone, and their walls are covered with vegetation. Often, vertical gardening from climbing plants is used for these purposes. Ivy, girlish grapes, bindweed and lianas look spectacular on the walls of the house, gazebo and other structures. Sometimes a thin layer of earth is poured onto the roof of the sheds and mosses and low grass are planted in it.
Of course, all kinds of plants are the main decoration of the landscape in the naturgarden style. These can be coniferous and deciduous trees, shrubs, ferns, flowers and meadow grasses.
For landscape decoration, it is better to choose local plants. For example, in our climatic zone, birches, rowans, oaks, maples, aspens, lindens, hazels, junipers, wild grapes, spruces and pines look especially good in natural gardens.
Fruit and berry crops such as gooseberries, currants, raspberries or honeysuckle can also be placed in the eco-garden, and fragrant wild strawberries can be planted in a mini-garden.
Tall astilbes, ferns of various types, bells, daisies, daisies, lupins, buttercups and cereals are especially popular among perennial flowers and plants. Valerian, sage, oregano, plantain, St. John's wort and mint and many other medicinal herbs are also frequent guests in eco-gardens.
The landscape natural style is suitable for almost any relief, since it is not required to level the terrain and clean it from snags, stumps and boulders. Primordial gullies and reservoirs will harmoniously fit into the eco-garden, bringing its owner peace and tranquility from closeness to nature.
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Decorative cereals are a great find for any gardener who wants to decorate his summer cottage or private house in an interesting and picturesque way. Plants allow you to create a garden in a natural style (this style has a self-explanatory name "naturgarden"), reproducing a corner of the wild. Perennial cereals in landscape design can be used in a variety of ways, for example, in single plantings, in rockeries and rock gardens, near artificial reservoirs, along garden paths, in the background of flower beds, lawns.
The idea of creating artificial park compositions resembling natural natural landscapes is far from new. The ancient architect and theorist of architecture Vitruvius, the author of the famous "Ten Books on Architecture", speaks in his works of the harmonious combination of cities under construction with the natural landscape. And in 1713 the British poet Alexander Pope published an article criticizing the deliberate decorativeness of the garden, admiring "... the amiable simplicity of nature."
Nature is the most outstanding landscape designer, and gardening art is a way to create a man-made natural corner.
Regular French gardens of the Baroque era are a symbol of man's complete control over nature. Landscape park ensembles, on the contrary, demonstrate the unity of man with her. This concept can be traced in English landscape parks as a counterbalance to the regular French style, which appeared largely thanks to the work of landscape architect André Le Nôtre, court gardener of the French king Louis XIV.
The founders of the landscape tradition in gardening art were the British: the architect William Kent and the gardener Charles Bridgman. And the most prominent representative who created gardens in this style is Lancelot Brown. Since the 18th century, this tradition has gradually spread to many countries. Until the 19th century, such gardens were called Anglo-Germanic, and today they are called English.
In my opinion, the Mon Repos Park in Vyborg, created in the 18th century, is an excellent example of a natural park. Most of it is a natural northern forest landscape with numerous rocks.
The landscape gardens and parks of the majority of Russian noble estates belong to the landscape. And until now, this style is widely used in the creation of public city parks.
The concept of a natural garden is also at the heart of oriental - Japanese and Chinese - gardens. Gardening art in the East is the creation of an ideal natural landscape that embodies the variability, naturalness and grandeur of nature.
According to the religious beliefs of Shintoism, the deities did not have a specific embodiment. They were identified with stones, water, plants and natural phenomena. Therefore, contemplation of the garden for a Chinese or Japanese is the bliss experienced from communication with God, and the garden itself is a temple of admiration for the greatness of nature.
Another popular natural garden option is alpine gardens and rockeries (rock gardens). Here they are better known as alpine slides. This type of garden imitates natural mountain landscapes.
The fashion for the arrangement of stone gardens using representatives of the flora characteristic of the mountainous areas began in 1767. John Blackburn created the first private garden of natural stone boulders in order to plant the plants found on the mountain slopes.
In those days, "herbarizing" - collecting plants became a fashionable occupation among the wealthy representatives of the middle class. Fans of exotic samples of mountain flora were faced with the fact that the "Alpines", torn out of their habitual habitat, did not want to settle down on the plain.
The emerging interest in mountain plants stimulated the development of a whole branch of horticulture - alpine gardens. Reginald Farrer, researcher and classifier of the flora of the Himalayas, was the first to formulate the aesthetic criteria for creating an artificial rocky landscape.
By the way, mountain plants were more fortunate than others: they got into a fashionable trend. However, a natural garden can be made up not only of the inhabitants of the slopes.
You can create artificial arctic gardens, ornamental areas of swamps - any natural landscape is amazing and beautiful.
Those who are equipping their garden for the first time, and are not yet fully versed in the intricacies of various styles, can easily confuse the Chinese style in landscape design with the Japanese.
In fact, they have a lot of differences. For example, Japanese landscape design emphasizes the superiority of nature. The Chinese, on the other hand, put their merits and opportunities on a par with the environment.
Thus, when decorating a site in the Chinese style, it should be borne in mind that the design must necessarily contain the following five elements:
There are quite a few design options for a Chinese garden. Therefore, in order to better define it, they can be divided into several categories.
You can learn more about the styles of landscape design from the video