Black and pure couples

Read the previous part. ← Technologies of adaptive landscape farming system

Potato diseases - late blight and Rhizoctonia blight - cause enormous damage to potato growing. The timing of their manifestation and the degree of harm are determined by climatic factors and the level of organization of protective treatments. Under the condition of cool, humid weather during the germination of tubers, the severity of Rhizoctonia will be the highest. The only measure that reduces harmfulness is a high-quality pre-planting treatment of tubers with fungicides.

In addition, you should pay attention to quarantine objects: golden potato nematode and potato cancer. It is recommended to use quarantine measures in production and personal plots. On garden plots, the main safety condition is the cultivation of varieties resistant to them.

To preserve the harvest and obtain high-quality potatoes, it is necessary to carry out mandatory pre-planting treatment of tubers to protect against diseases and pests (rhizoctonia, common scab, wireworms, Colorado potato beetle, aphids) using insectofungicides.

The weediness of agricultural crops in the farms of the North-West region is quite large. The following weeds dominating in potato plantings: perennial - bristly thistle, creeping wheatgrass, field thistle, field bindweed; field horsetail, annuals - bindweed buckwheat, bird mountaineer, tenacious bedstraw, white marsh, gray marsh, sorrel knotweed, field yarrow, medium starlet, medicinal smoke, odorless chamomile. Perennial weeds dominate the fallows - runny ordinary, thistle bristly, dandelion medicinal, rank meadow, St. John's wort, creeping wheatgrass, meadow timothy and annuals - bird mountaineer, odorless chamomile. Recommended herbicides: Roundup, Tornado (active ingredient is glyphosate).

For more effective protection of agricultural crops, VIZR has developed zonal protection systems for grain crops, seed and ware potatoes, and vegetable crops. Zonal protection systems make it possible to reduce crop losses from a complex of harmful organisms on grain crops by 20 percent, on potatoes - by 50 percent or more, and on vegetables - by 30-40 percent.

The adaptive landscape farming system provides for mandatory compliance with environmental safety. Environmentally hazardous factors, for example, when growing potatoes are the following:

Factor 1. Soil contamination by residual pesticides. To ensure environmental friendliness, it is enough to comply with the standard doses of pesticide application (see the table above). Permissible application rate, eg Roundup <2 kg / ha before fall plowing. Other herbicides, insecticides can be used in a single treatment with only a standard dose. Weed control is best carried out through the development of crop rotation and the use of mechanical means of destruction. Chemical analysis of the soil should be carried out once every 3-5 years and, if necessary, the contaminated fields should be removed from circulation.

Factor 2. Contamination of products with nitrates and harmful chemical elements. To do this, it is necessary to control the content of nitrates (normally it should be less than 250 mg / kg of product). The content of diseased tubers in the crop should not exceed 3 percent. The content of residual pesticides - no more than 0.1 mg / kg, the content of radioactive substances - no more than 130 bq / kg of products (cesium), strontium - no more than 60 bq / kg, heavy metals (mercury) - no more than 0.02 mg / kg, arsenic - no more than 0.2 mg / kg. To do this, it is necessary to use mechanical methods of weed control, accurately dose the application of pesticides, separate mechanically damaged tubers before storing potatoes, which significantly reduces the spread of diseases. In some cases, withdrawal from crop rotation fields contaminated with potato diseases and pests.

Factor 3. Balance of nutrients within the environmentally safe application rate. The NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium) ratio for table potatoes should be 1: 0.9: 1.4 for early and middle varieties, and 1: 1.2: 1.5 for mid-season ones. Precise adjustment of the fertilizer application rates for a specific area of ​​1 m². When applying organic fertilizers, a deviation from the calculated norm is allowed no more than 10%; irregularity of application ± 25%, when applying mineral fertilizers - deviation from the calculated norm ± 10%; irregularity ± 20%.

In cases where the gardener finds himself in a situation where the agrotechnical conditions for growing plants have already been violated, the soil fertility has decreased and the soil is already infected with dangerous pests and weeds, and the grown crop does not please him, there is always the opportunity to switch from random farming systems to an adaptive landscape system ... In this case, it is necessary to provide for the creation of a replacement crop rotation field, which allows to cultivate the soil well and master the new system. For this, pure fallow is introduced (steam, fallow field - a crop rotation field not occupied by crops during the entire (or part) of the growing season and contained in a loose and weed-free state; an effective agrotechnical means of accumulating moisture in the soil, increasing its fertility, combating weeds, increasing the yield of all crops of the crop rotation and the appropriate agricultural technology for them. - TSB)

The black or early clean steam is the main field of crop rotation. Black pairs plow in the fall, and the early ones in the spring. When harvesting the previous crop in the early stages (before September), the processing of black steam begins with peeling. Plowing is carried out 2-3 weeks after peeling. In the fields where the harvesting of the predecessor was carried out late, it is necessary to plow in the spring, moving on to early clean fallows. In the spring, in black steam, it is necessary to close the moisture - to burrow the soil. In May, when weeds appear, stubble cultivation by 7-8 cm, and in dry weather - cultivation with harrowing. At the end of May or the beginning of June, organic fertilizers should be applied (at least 10 kg per 1 m2), mineral fertilizers NPK in the form of nitrophosphate 150-200 g / m2, and on acidic soils - additionally lime fertilizers with magnesium (1-1.5 kg 1 m²), then plow the field to a depth of 18 cm.

In the summer, layer-by-layer cultivation of steam is carried out. The first - to a depth of 7-8 cm, the second and third - by 10-12 cm as weeds appear. Three weeks before sowing, for example, winter rye on green manure or planting strawberries, the soil is cultivated again by 10-12 cm. If manure is not introduced in the spring, then it must be added in the summer (in July) and plowed 3-4 weeks before sowing winter rye or planting strawberries. Before sowing, weed shoots and soil crust are destroyed by pre-sowing cultivation to a depth of 6-8 cm.

In the fields overgrown with perennial root-sprouting weeds (sow thistles), 2-3 stubble plows are carried out in summer (stubble plowing - cultivation of the soil with special tools - stubble plows - to a shallow depth (8-12 cm). During stubble plowing, surface loosening occurs, partial soil wrapping and weed cutting. - TSB). The first plowing is to a depth of 8-10 cm, the second - to 12-14 cm, and then, when weed rosettes appear, plowing is carried out with a seam turnover, but no later than 3-4 weeks before sowing the main crop. If rhizome weeds (wheatgrass, mother and stepmother, horsetail), peeling is carried out crosswise to a depth of 10-12 cm, followed by plowing with a massive emergence of weed shoots.

Instead of black and clear vapors, occupied vapors and appropriate treatment can be used. Annual grasses are cultivated as steam-growing crops, peas, vetch or other green manure crops harvested early. On sandy soils, steam is effective for green fertilization bitter lupine... Under green manure crops, it is imperative to add lime, organic and mineral fertilizers in the required doses.

After harvesting fallow crops, processing should be carried out depending on the duration of the period before sowing the next crop, on soil moisture, the degree of its looseness, weediness of the field, as well as on the weather conditions of summer.

In years with normal moisture in the field of fallowing non-tilled crops, harvested 3-4 weeks before sowing the next crop, it is necessary to carry out plowing with harrowing after harvesting. In dry weather conditions - deep loosening in several tracks followed by harrowing. With the emergence of weed seedlings, the soil should be cultivated.

Before sowing the main crop, pre-sowing cultivation is carried out with harrowing to the depth of seeding.

If the site is occupied with grasses, the layer of perennial grasses are treated accordingly. The grass layer is a good predecessor to most crops: green manure, potatoes, vegetables and others. Plowing of a layer of grasses should be carried out in the first half of July, followed by harrowing. With a high soil connectivity, 3-4 days before plowing, a layer of grass is hoe to a depth of 10 cm.

If the depth of the arable layer on the site is insufficient, then an appropriate deepening and cultivation of the arable layer is carried out. It is necessary to deepen the arable layer, especially sod-podzolic soils, taking into account the degree of their cultivation, the properties of the subsurface horizons and the mechanical composition of the soil.

It has been established that on poorly cultivated soils with the presence of a podzolic horizon, the arable layer should be deepened gradually. The first time - when the black steam rises by 1 / 4-1 / 5 part of the initial depth of the existing arable layer with the obligatory introduction of a full dose of lime and spring application of organic fertilizers for plowing at a dose of at least 10 kg / m? for every 1 cm of the deepening of the arable layer. The second time, deepening in the crop rotation should be carried out after harvesting green manure, the third time - when raising a layer of grasses (each time, appropriate fertilizers are applied).

The deepening of the arable layer is carried out simultaneously with the implementation of phosphoritization (the introduction of 1.5-2 kg / m2 of phosphorite flour or superphosphate) and the introduction of a complete mineral fertilizer 200 g / m2? (NPK), which provides a high cultivation effect on the subsurface soil layers brought to the surface. This method of deepening and cultivating the arable layer is available to everyone, it allows you to create an arable layer with a thickness of up to 30 cm in a rotation of the crop rotation (that is, in 5 years).

On well-cultivated soils, in the absence of a podzolic horizon, a one-time intensive deepening of the arable layer up to 30 cm is possible with the obligatory introduction of appropriate doses of organic, mineral fertilizers and liming.

Thus, our acquaintance with the new farming system - the adaptive landscape system - is over, we believe that questions may arise, write, we are ready to answer them.

In the meantime, we wish you success!

Gennady Vasyaev, Associate Professor,
Chief Specialist of the North-West Scientific Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy,
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener

Read all parts of the article about adaptive landscape farming:
• What is adaptive landscape farming
• Components of an adaptive landscape farming system
• Devices and methods in the adaptive landscape farming system
• Dacha farming: mapping of fields, observance of crop rotation
• Determination of the structure of crops and crop rotations
• Fertilizer system as a basic element of suburban farming
• What fertilizers are needed for various vegetable crops
• Tillage systems
• Technologies of adaptive landscape farming system
• Black and pure couples

Decorative lighting

Separately, I would like to mention the use of light forms as decorative elements. Sconces designed for artistic illumination of interior details are very relevant. They themselves may well be barely noticeable, but if there are several of them, and they successfully attract attention to paintings and other objects of decorative and applied art, then the effect will be wonderful.

An original chandelier with an interesting geometric shape in the form of cubes

In the event that your room, especially the living room, has very low ceilings, it is good to place such small lamps strictly around the perimeter. Thus, they will visually stretch the entire room, it will visually appear much higher.

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When to plant garlic

There are two types of garlic - shooters (only winter crops) and non-shooters (winter and spring crops), and both are successfully grown in our conditions. But still, winter garlic has become more widespread, which, with proper care, usually gives large yields with larger cloves. Let's take a closer look at how to plant winter and spring garlic.

Like any other crop, garlic grows better after some crops and worse after others.

The best precursors of garlic are legumes, forage grasses, green manures, cabbage, pumpkin seeds, cereals and pure pairs, the worst precursors are potatoes, tomatoes and other bulbs.

Cultivation techniques

In addition to the classification of work by purpose, there is another one that divides the tillage according to the method of execution. So, harrowing is driven, cross-diagonal and figured. In the first case, the field is processed twice. First, the tractor with the attached implement moves forward, then backward. With diagonal-lateral loosening, the tines of the implement move at an angle of 45 degrees in relation to the direction of the rows. This method is most often used on personal plots.

In autumn, a harrow or rake is used to embed organic and mineral fertilizers into the ground, as well as to level the area after harvesting.

Course of the lesson:

The Grimy Girl comes to visit the children.

Replay : Oh, you, Grimy Girl,

Where are you my hands are so smeared?

Dev. Chum. : Played on the street that's got dirty.

Replay : Guys, what should our girl do?

Children's answers: wash, wash mud…

Replay (addresses to Dev. Chum.) Do you know what will help you with this?

Replay : Guys, do you want to help the girl? I invite everyone to go on a journey to the land of Things, to the city of Personal hygiene items. There we will meet the residents of this city who will help Dev. Chum. be clean and tidy.

Replay sets off with the children by car (we choose a driver):

In the car, in the car, the chauffeur sits,

The car, the car, it goeshums: bbc.

Replay : Attention! It seems that we are already approaching. And here is the city of Personal Hygiene Items. (draws attention to the city model)

Replay emphasizes that different things live in the Land of Things, but things that help to become clean, neat, beautiful and healthy.

Replay : Look, here is one of the inhabitants of this city. What do you think it is?

Replay : Hello dear soap. We are glad to meet you.

Dev. Chum. : Why do I need soap?

Children's answers: To wash dirt from hands, elbows.

Replay suggests Dev. Chum. soap in a wrapper.

Dev. takes, looks, turns.

Dev. Chum. : Soap does not help me.

Replay : Children, why can't the girl do it?

Children's answers: Yes it is in a wrapper.

Replay : Maybe something else needs to be done? Let's try to expand.

Replay offers dry soap.

Replay : Try, children wash with our guest hands with this soap.

Children's answers: Don't wash it - it's dry.

Dev. Chum. : Your soap is not helping.

Replay : What else do we need to wash hands?

Replay : Guys, maybe you can show Dev. Chum. how to wash hands? (children take soap, wet soap and hands, lather hands with soap, thoroughly rub the soap, wash off the soap with water). Replay together with Dev. Chum. repeats everything with children.

Replay : Children, it seems to me that the soap smells like something, what do your noses tell you?

Children's answers (fragrant, smells delicious)

Replay : Fragrant soap, white, soap

The soap looks at dirty with a grin:

Would you dirty, I remembered about soap-

The soap would finally wash you off.

Replay : Here is our Dev. Chum. handles, steel elbows clean, she is now just a girl with us.

Dev. : Thank you, you taught me how to wash hands.

Dev. He takes a towel and crumples it in his hands.

Dev. : I dry myself with a towel.

Replay : children, does the girl dry herself with a towel?

Replay : Children, tell and show how correctly Dev. Use a towel. (First, unroll the towel, apply it to your face or hands, and only then wipe it off.)

Replay Appeals to Dev. : Do you remember?

Replay : Look at which towel.

Children's answers (soft, fluffy, clean)

Replay : Dev., Did you enjoy traveling with us around the city of Personal hygiene items?

Dev. : Yes. Now I remember how to wash handswhat soap washes mud, makes pens clean and beautiful and how to dry yourself with a towel.

Soap: very good, but it's time for you to get home.In order not to forget the meeting with me, take this scheme with you: How to wash properly hands and wash... Hang it in the washroom. Bye! Come to our city again, you will learn a lot of interesting and useful things here.

Replay : well, now it's time to go home. Take your seats in the car, let's go.

After returning to group, say goodbye to the girl and place the diagram in the washroom.

Held by the teacher of MBDOU No. 83 Andrianova Svetlana Nikolaevna

Game "Collect the picture" (valeological content).

Planning for educational activities "Health". Younger and middle age. Long-term planning in the educational area "Health". Younger and middle age. Month Directly educational activity.

Watch the video: Black Excellist: 10 Black Power Couples

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