In the garden throughout the season, more generally from the very end of winter to the following fall, we have to make cuttings that will take place in the garden. There are different types of cuttings (stem cutting, crossette cutting, leaf cutting, heel cutting, etc.) for which you will have to respect "prerequisites": work only with sharp and disinfected tools, select the cutting segments on healthy plants, trees and shrubs, and adapt the type of cutting to the plant to be grafted.
It is a type of cutting particularly suitable for small aromatic shrubs such as rosemary, fruit trees such as currants, blueberries, mulberries, and small red fruits in general. This method is also used for certain flowering shrubs, such as the Peruvian thévetia.
In practice, the cutting is done on year-old wood or year-old wood, but keeping part of the supporting branch at the base of the branch. This is called the heel. Here, the plant is rich in “growth meristem”.
1. Select a young branch of the wood of the year or 1 year maximum. the shrub you select the branches from should be healthy and disease-free. It must have eyes and buds.
2. In general, to make this heeled cutting, it is necessary to "tear" rather than cut with secateurs, the secondary branch. During this gesture, part of the primary branch is detached with the secondary branch, the heel, it contains meristems, growth cells and that is really what we are trying to achieve.
3. Preparation of the branch segment: count the eyes and buds from the heel. Count 3 eyes and 3 buds from the heel. Scratch the eyes which also contain meristems, they will promote recovery even better.
4. Place the cutting in a light mixture of potting soil and sand, leaving only an upper quarter of it sticking out. water and keep the substrate moist. roots will form and shoots will appear within a few days.
The cutting must be sound, that is:
To take the cutting:
Pulling is the most complete exercise for building muscle and strengthening your upper body. However, not everyone performs this move perfectly.
The right gesture can be summed up in 4 crucial points. First of all, you must first of all be careful to exercise your whole body and not just the upper or lower part. A full extension of the arms must be performed and the pull-up must be carried out only with force and with both arms simultaneously.
Second, pay attention to the width of the grip, a grip that is too wide will not give you adequate movement while a grip that is too weak may injure you. It is therefore necessary to opt for an intermediate take.
Third, it is important to pay attention to the movements of the shoulder blades. You need to tilt them down first, which will give you the tension you need for the exercise. You should then bend your arms and try to bring your shoulders together.
The fourth and last point is based on the positioning of the body. A straight position will make you work the abs but will have a detrimental effect on your back. A back shoulder position allows you to fully extend your spine instead of doing the opposite. Finally, crossing your legs will give you the stability you need to perform the movement properly.
GR ® 4 route:
Description of the GR ® 4:
The GR ® 4 leaves from Grasse in the Alpes-Maritimes to reach Royan in Charente-Maritime. It crosses 13 departments from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic.
This route requires at least two months to be completed in its entirety, allowing visitors to discover a remarkable natural heritage such as the Verdon gorges, the Ventoux massif, the Ardèche gorges, the Cantal volcanoes, the Auvergne lakes.
Some sections are sporty in the Grand Canyon du Verdon, the gorges of the Ardèche, at the top of Puy Mary and Puy de Dôme.
In the PACA region, regulations may prohibit access to massifs during certain summer days because of the risk of fire. If you plan to bivouac, avoid starting fires as much as possible. If you have to do it, don't leave without being sure you've put out the embers.
GR ® 4 topoguides:
Title: Cantal volcano and the Pays de Saint-Flour (ref. 400)
Title: Volcanoes and lakes of Auvergne Pays du Val d'Allier (ref. 304 °
Title: Haute Provence via the Gorges du Verdon - The Napoleon Route on foot (ref. 401)
If you're not lucky enough to have a Le petit hydroculteur store near you, you're going to have to read this.
Making a cutting is easy:
- Cuttings consist in creating, from a portion of a plant, a new similar plant. The cuttings are carried out on a healthy, vigorous plant.
The cutting in hydroponics or aeroponics:
The hydroponic or aeroponic method of cuttings is the best way to obtain a plant with exceptional properties. Indeed, you will have had the time beforehand to select a species suitable for your environment. Also, this is the best way to make sure that the plant you are growing is a female plant (see how to determine the sex of the plant? "To know how to recognize its sex). Making a cutting is not complicated but requires that you respect a few rules once again.To make cuttings, you will need:
Here's how to do it:
- First of all, it is necessary that you sterilize the clay balls after rinsing them.
- Then cut the end of a branch of a female plant that you have previously selected. You don't need 20 cm! Just one end that is about 5-7 cm long, and has good leaves (to ensure good growth of the cutting). It is advisable to cut the stem just below an internode (point of junction of the leaves). Cut at an angle with the razor blade.
- Dip the stem of the cutting in the glass of reverse osmosis water, over a length of 2.3 cm
- Dip the wet stem in clonex cutting hormone (the cutting hormone will cling to the part you have wet) .Tap to release the excess hormone.
- With a chisel, slightly cut the stem which is obstructed by the hormone.
- Gently place the branch in the basket and add a small handful of clay balls.
- Place it on the pierced cover of your cutter and connect the water pump.
After a few days, roots will appear. Note that with a heating cable, the roots will grow faster. But there is really no need to buy one. The roots develop well at an ambient temperature of 20 ° C. When the roots appear, place the basket in the hydroponic tank (as in the table "How does the photoperiod in hydroculture work?") Or in an earthen pot (depending on the cultivation technique chosen).
We select a fragment of a young woody or herbaceous twig at least 10 to 15 cm long with at least 3 nodes (for some species, we can even simply take a leaf or a piece of root) and cut it ( with a clean and sharp pruning shears) just under a knot or with a heel. We prune all the leaves of the branch with the exception of 2 or 3 at the top to avoid too much transpiration of the plant which no longer has roots to hydrate itself. The branch is then quickly planted (to prevent it from drying out) from the cut side with a zone favorable to the emission of roots into a substrate. This substrate can be earth, potting soil or even a simple container filled with water. We will preferably use terracotta pots and we will place the cuttings on the edges of the pot because, the walls storing and retaining heat, this promotes the emission of roots.
We place everything in a bright environment (but not in direct sunlight), hot, humid and sheltered from the wind. The cutting has taken if after 3 to 4 weeks new growth can be seen in the eyes.
To increase your chances of success, you can use a cutting hormone, auxin, which stimulates rhizogenesis (the appearance of roots on stems and other organs).
Never leave the terminal bud of the branch so that, when the plant begins to grow, it is the root formation that is favored and not that of the stem.
In addition, the cuttings consist of eating the soil from the pot where the plant grows.
When to cut:
The cutting period depends on the species chosen, the type of cutting, and the intended use. For the most part, cuttings are most successful when done while the plant is growing.
Early June is a good time for hardwood cuttings (maple, elm, azalea). Take year-round shoots from which the base begins to dry, count 5 or 6 leaves from the base, immerse the base in a cutting hormone and smother them in a mini greenhouse (made with a plastic bottle for example).
You can also cut at the end of summer on aouté wood or on certain hardwoods in autumn-winter.
For conifers, the period is rather late autumn and during winter in a cold frame.
Types of cuttings
There are several types of cuttings:
* the herbaceous cutting: is practiced on non-lignified plants often at the end of summer.
* softwood cutting: is done on the new year twigs (still green) of trees just when they are starting to harden. Shoots are suitable for softwood cuttings when they can be broken easily by bending them between thumb and forefinger and when they still have a leaf size gradation (older leaves are ripe while new leaves are still small). For most trees, this stage occurs in May, June, or July. Be careful not to let the shoots dry out before replanting. They usually take root quickly.
* the semi-august cutting: is practiced on a shoot of the year whose base is hard (august) and the tip tender and still growing (from mid-July to mid-September depending on the species)
* the August cutting: is practiced on dormant twigs in late autumn, winter or early spring. The wood is hard and does not bend easily.
* choking the cutting: it can be done at any time of the year, but by putting the cutting under a glass cover (or locked in a transparent plastic bag if not) to maintain a humidity level close to 100%. Remember to aerate every 2 to 3 days to avoid rotting problems. The stewing technique significantly improves the recovery of cuttings by preventing them from drying out.
* The leaf cutting: is practiced with a "Coleus" "Begonia" leaf that is positioned facing the substrate and the main veins of which are cut off. Excessive watering is avoided to prevent the cutting from rotting.
Many cuttings do not need clonex cutting hormone and the latter must be used well for its effect to be positive. (only reserve it for plants known to be difficult to cut), after several unsuccessful attempts, I completely abandoned this method. Here's how to make the best use of it.
At the base of your cutting, make a small wound by removing 1 or 2 cm long a small strip of bark. Be careful not to make it deep, the sap should not come out. Immerse this wound in the hormone, the layer of this product (white powder) should be even and thin. Shake to remove excess. Plant according to the type of cuttings you have chosen.
some plants are cuttings very easily with water, prepare your cutting and leave it in a container of water in which you will have put a small piece of charcoal. In a few weeks the roots will have formed. I proceed in this way for all my salix (see article on willow multiplication and photo on a weeping willow branch on the "ARTBONSAI" site), my fuschias, solanum. we can do it in any season. Transplant in the garden when the weather permits in spring, early summer and early fall.
Any plant with flexible stems can be layered (honeysuckle, clematis, rhododendron, snowball.), This method of multiplication is very good because the layering feeds on the mother plant until it has produced its own roots.
Layering can be practiced all year round, spring or fall being the two most favorable seasons for a better recovery. Locate a place at the foot of your shrub that will accommodate your layering, loosen it well there and dig a shallow hole. If your soil is frankly not beautiful in this place, make a mixture of good potting soil and gravel to drain this part. Choose a very flexible low rod that you will bring into the space you have made. Hold there with small hooks or cover with soil and secure it with any trick of your choice. Water well and weed if necessary from time to time.
- OTHER CUTTING METHODS -
Some plants can easily multiply by separation of a leaf, such as some begonias, succulents, others by fragments of roots. Learn about the easiest method for each species.
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