Many have heard that there is an indoor flower called the Chinese rose, but most have no idea that this is one of the well-known varieties of hibiscus, which in southern climates grows right on city streets, and in northern regions has long been successfully cultivated in the volume of a flowerpot.
The rose of love - this is how the inhabitants of the Hawaiian islands called the garden hibiscus. The flowers of this plant could often be found woven into the hair of girls, where they effectively emphasized the southern beauty with juicy shades of their inflorescences. This plant belongs to the mallow family and is cultivated as a small tree in an indoor flower pot, as well as a common shrub in the garden or greenhouse.
The hibiscus flower is striking in its beauty
Hibiscus appeared in European botanical gardens in the 13th century. Today it can be found in many countries: Thailand, Egypt, China, as well as in Sudan and on the islands of Ceylon and Java.
The Chinese rose is an evergreen plant with a bare stem and alternate leaves that usually fall off during dormancy. The inflorescences are quite voluminous and, depending on the variety, are distinguished by the juicy color and delicacy of the petal. The hibiscus fruit looks like a box that breaks down into five lobes. The seeds are slightly tucked up with fluff, but in some types of culture they are naked.
Hibiscus can be attributed to centenarians, its century is long and is about 20 years.
Hibiscus tree in the garden
This culture lends itself well to the formation of a bush and, with proper care, can reach three meters in height.
The branches of the plant have a sour taste, and its juice contains organic acids, anthocyanins, pectin and hibisic acid, which makes the drink from the plant healthy and refreshing. This drink is made medicinal by bactericidal, hemostatic, choleretic and diuretic properties.
Similar conditions of detention are suitable for fatsia. More about this plant: https://diz-cafe.com/rastenija/fatsiya-uxod-za-yaponskoj-krasavicej-v-domashnix-usloviyax.html
Among the wide variety of hibiscus varieties, there are several popular ones that can be grown in an apartment:
First of all, you should learn that hibiscus is a plant of southern origin, and therefore it is important to create conditions where it will be warm and light. On the southern window or near it, the flower is the place, although the plant perceives partial shade normally. The main thing is to choose the right light mode for it, since with a lack of lighting, the hibiscus stops blooming.
A well-lit place is also suitable for growing bashful mimosa. You can learn more about the rules of home care from the material: https://diz-cafe.com/rastenija/mimoza-styidlivaya-uhod-v-domashnih-usloviyah.html
Note: if your plant grew in the shade, do not rush to abruptly take it out in the sun, the hibiscus will receive a severe leaf burn. Accustom the plant to sunlight gradually, gradually moving the flower closer to the window.
Blooming hibiscus on a lighted windowsill
The ambient temperature should fluctuate between 20 ° -22 ° C, as the Chinese rose reacts capriciously to extreme heat and night coolness. Therefore, you should not open the window at night, and on a hot day, protect the flower from overheating by airing and spraying.
The soil for the Chinese rose should be light, nutritious and close to neutral. The ideal composition is a mixture of turf, leaf and humus soil with sand (4: 3: 1: 1) or mix one part of sand and humus with two parts of ordinary garden soil. Charcoal should be added to the soil.
Hibiscus roots do not tolerate stagnant moisture in the pot, so the plant needs to provide drainage to drain water. To do this, you can pour a layer of expanded clay or small pebbles on the bottom of the pot with a layer of about 4 cm.
It is advisable to replant young hibiscus once a year, changing a pot of the same volume for a more spacious container. But starting from the age of three, the need for an annual transshipment disappears, and a Chinese rose is transplanted only once every three to four years. This culture is fast-growing, so she needs to choose an appropriate pot, since the hibiscus does not like tightness, and if the flower becomes crowded, it will slow down its growth.
Video: I planted hibiscus in a large pot (personal experience)
Hibiscus exclusively needs a humid atmosphere, so it needs to be watered and sprayed regularly:
fromear air does not at all contribute to flowering, since the buds need moisture to open. Moreover, dryness will provoke drying of foliage and an attack of insects.. Saying that flowers will not open in a dry atmosphere does not mean that they need to be sprayed. After this procedure, the delicate petals will rot and the bud will fall off. Only foliage should arrange a shower, and the buds will get moisture, which will evaporate from the surface of the leaf. You can also put containers with water next to the plant to humidify the air.
Hibiscus loves warm and settled water
Note: containers with water to increase the level of humidity around the hibiscus should be placed directly next to it. You cannot put a pot with a flower in a tray with water.
If frequent communication with a spray bottle is not able to cause rotting of the foliage, then the flood, especially with cold water, will destroy the roots... It is necessary to water the Chinese rose often and abundantly, but each subsequent watering should occur only after the top layer of the soil has dried by about 5 cm. The water for irrigation should be separated, at room temperature.
In spring, hibiscus is fed with fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus, this will promote growth and flowering. All other trace elements should be added during the active period of development once every 2-3 weeks, except for nitrogen, it should be avoided in hibiscus feedings.
If the hibiscus does not bloom, then it is enough to simply replace the soil in the pot and increase the degree of illumination. This stimulates the growth of young shoots, on which buds are formed. Regular pruning also promotes abundant flowering of the Chinese rose.
hibiscus does not bloom in poor lighting
Often in the fall, the heating is not turned on for a long time, and it is already getting cool outside. Hibiscus senses this temperature drop, especially if the summer is hot, and actively forms buds. Using this feature of the plant, you can artificially stimulate the Chinese rose for extraordinary flowering.
There is one more secret of stimulation, which was used by our grandmothers. When transplanting a plant into the soil with a pot where the rose grows, a wooden stick or chip is inserted at a short distance from the trunk. It may seem incredible, but growers claim that this method makes hibiscus bloom not only regularly, but also consistently, blooming every day.
hibiscus can be provoked to bloom even in the middle of winter
When a plant sits in a pot that is too large, then at first it will grow in it, building up greenery, and only then it will find the time and strength for flowering. The flower capacity should be commensurate with the crown of the plant. True, if you plant a hibiscus in fertile soil, then it will fill a large tub with roots pretty quickly.
Correct and timely feeding also promotes hibiscus flowering. To do this, it is enough to apply a superphosphate extract or a complex fertilizer from a flower shop with a special composition to stimulate flowering into moist soil once every 20 days.
And you shouldn't exploit the flower all year round. A short rest in winter will allow with renewed vigor to enter the active phase of growth in the spring and please with abundant flowering.
Hibiscus is able not to retire during winter, remain active, and even bloom until spring at room temperature. It is enough just to provide it with decent light and a level of humidity. But for good health and proper development, hibiscus must rest between November and February. To do this, you need to rearrange it in a shaded and cool place and reduce watering.
For the winter, hibiscus can be removed deep into the room, away from batteries.
The volume of one irrigation should not be reduced, but the intervals should be increased. You can navigate by the dried layer. Once it has dried to a depth of 5 cm, this means that you can water the plant on the third day. The plant is sprayed during this period only if the air is too dry, but often this is not worth doing, and there is no need to feed it at all.
The optimum resting temperature for a Chinese rose for laying new buds is about 15 ° C. If the temperature is higher, then the hibiscus will not fall asleep and will develop, and therefore require food. He will not have enough light and water, he will start to ache and, in the end, wither away. The lowest temperature limit is 13-14 ° C, when the temperature drops below, the flower will begin to freeze and hurt. Watering the hibiscus abundantly at low temperatures, the grower runs the risk of ruining the roots of the plant.
In February, the Chinese rose is already ready to wake up, so it can be gradually pushed towards the light and the temperature of the content increased, and at the same time the watering. A couple of weeks after the final adaptation of the plant to new conditions, it should be fed with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer.
Before waking up, you can cut the hibiscus, this will stimulate its branching.
Formative pruning is necessary for hibiscus, it provokes the plant to an abundant color. In addition, if you do not cut the Chinese rose, its bush will turn into impassable and ugly thickets. You can cut a plant not only in spring, but also at any other period, observing the rules. If, for example, a bush is cut too late, in May, then flowering can not wait. You can only cut off those branches that have already faded.
After each flowering, pinch the tips of the branches, and the hibiscus will release side shoots, on which buds will also begin to form.
Hibiscus cardinal pruning
It turns out that each uncut branch is one unblown flower and a missed opportunity to admire it. Shoots parallel to the trunk are called tops, they must be cut first, just like the branches that grow inside the crown. Lignified shoots growing parallel to the main branches are also recommended to be trimmed. For a landmark, use a leaf facing outward: each shoot is shortened over such a leaf by one third.
You can form a bush depending on where it is kept: it is more convenient to grow a compact tree on a narrow windowsill, and it is more pleasant to contemplate a sprawling bush on the floor in the living room. It is difficult to overdo it in pruning hibiscus, this culture very quickly grows green mass, and the foliage becomes lush and thicker.
Hibiscus can be grafted all year round, since it does not have a pronounced and obligatory rest period. It is advisable to do this when the moon is in the growing phase, because the plant juices during this period go from the roots to the stems.
There are several ways of grafting, and the most accessible one is in cleavage:
An incision at the trunk of a hibiscus scion
For grafting hibiscus, the scion is cut and the stock is sharpened
It is not recommended to pause here, so as not to dry out the sections.
The vaccination site is tightly tied with a thread
This is what the vaccination site looks like after healing
After a month, if the plant rootstock has taken root, the hibiscus is gradually accustomed to normal growing conditions, but the thread is not removed until six months. After removal, the grafting site is smeared with garden varnish.
Houseplants are more likely to be attacked by pests or infections, unlike their counterparts in the open field, as they are in a confined space and sooner or later fall under a temperature jump, drought, draft or cold. While in the open air the environmental balance is regulated in a natural way, within the four walls we ourselves create the conditions for keeping and often make mistakes. In order to be able to provide assistance to a diseased plant on time, it is necessary to be able to recognize the symptoms that hibiscus signals about its abnormal state, and to know what means can be used to correct this situation.
Indoor Chinese rose propagates in two ways: by seed and cuttings.The first method is laborious and is available only to breeders or patient growers with a tendency to meticulous pursuits, but dividing a bush by cuttings is not only easy, but also pleasant, since cuttings retain all the varietal characteristics of the culture and a young plant blooms already in the first year of development.
Usually hibiscus is cut after pruning.
Young twigs are placed in a vessel of water, like in a vase. The container should be chosen from dark glass and it is better if it is possible to cover it along with the twigs, like a cap, also transparent, for example, a glass jar. The moisture around the cuttings will increase and they are more likely to take root, and this will happen around the 25th or 30th day.
Hibiscus stalk, ready to take root in the ground
After the roots appear, the cuttings are transferred to the peat soil with the addition of coarse sand.
Sphagnum moss added to the soil will also have a beneficial effect on the rooting of hibiscus cuttings. Before planting cuttings in the ground, it is necessary to remove all leaves from each branch, except for the top two.
After six months, the cuttings will turn into young plants and each can be transplanted into a separate pot for the next 12 months.
Rooted hibiscus shoot blooms in the first year
Seeds are sown from late January to early March.
Before sowing, they are soaked in Epin's solution for 12-14 hours and only then they are spread on a damp surface of a mixture consisting of sand and peat. From above, the seeds are sprinkled with the same composition of a centimeter and a half and cover the container with the crops with glass or tighten it with a film to simulate the greenhouse atmosphere.
Hibiscus seed capsule
The temperature in the seed germination area must be kept constant, not exceeding 25 ° C-27 ° C, but with all the greenhouse procedure, this mini-greenhouse should be aired regularly to avoid the appearance of a treacherous fungus. During air baths, soil moisture is checked and, if necessary, sprayed. In order not to stress the seedlings by temperature changes, the water in the spray bottle should be slightly warmer than room temperature.
When the seedlings form a second true leaf, they can be cut into separate small containers.
Seedling hibiscus from seed
A hibiscus grown from a seed will bloom only in the second or third year.
Hibiscus is ideal for those who like indoor flowers who prefer unpretentious exoticism. The Chinese rose can equally calmly tolerate a weak diffused light, and temperature drops, and even a treacherous draft or short-term drought. Due to its undemanding nature, hibiscus is often displayed in hallways, offices, large living rooms and even corridors of large institutions.
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Infusions of leaves and flowers help to cleanse the skin, the gruel from the leaves is applied to boils and boils. So, a home first-aid kit is hidden in a beautiful plant.
Hibiscus tea, a favorite drink of many, is obtained from hibiscus flowers. It has a beneficial effect on hypertensive patients and helps the stomach cope with heavy food.
Air humidification due to the evaporation of moisture from the top layer of the soil, contemplation of a beautiful flowering bush create healthy air and relieve internal stress. This is evidenced by the hibiscus in the photo.
The first thing that a novice florist needs to learn is the light-loving hibiscus plant. Place it by a window or any other well-lit place. Also do not forget that hibiscus grows very quickly and grows quite large. In a small room, there may be problems with its placement: this flower does not like crampedness. The pot in which the hibiscus will live also plays an important role: the tighter the pot, the slower it will grow.
The optimum temperature for a Chinese rose in the summer is 20-22 degrees. In winter, the temperature should be lowered to 14-16 degrees. Lowering the temperature in winter will have a positive effect on the future flowering of hibiscus. If you do not have the opportunity to keep the flower in low temperature conditions, do not be discouraged - the Chinese rose can grow in winter and at room temperature.
Hibiscus needs frequent spraying, as the flower loves high humidity. If you keep hibiscus in a room with dry air, then there is a high probability that the flowers will not be able to fully open. Spraying should be carried out as carefully as possible - water should not fall on the flowers, otherwise the buds will become covered with spots and fall off.
To increase the humidity, you can use a pallet with expanded clay or pebbles filled with water. But remember, the bottom of the pot must not touch the water!
Hibiscus loves moisture. Water it abundantly so that the soil in the pot is completely saturated with water. But it is not worth watering the Chinese rose too often - the top layer of the earth should have time to dry out. In autumn and winter, watering should be moderate, after about 2-3 days, half after the top layer dries out. For watering, it is best to use constant soft water at room temperature.
The soil for growing hibiscus should be nutritious and light, it should be close to neutral (pH about 6). The ideal soil composition would be a mixture of sod, leafy, humus soil and sand in a ratio of 4: 3: 1: 1. Pieces of charcoal can be added to the composition of the earth. A simplified soil composition is also suitable: turf, humus soil and sand in proportions of 2: 1: 1.
Do not forget to take care of good drainage, the flower does not tolerate stagnant water in the pot!
Top dressing plays an important role in the care of indoor hibiscus. It is very important not to overdo it with fertilizers. In the spring, when the hibiscus is preparing to start growing, it is worth feeding it with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer. For the rest of the fertilizers, the optimal time will be summer, when the flower grows most actively. But it is better to refuse nitrogen-containing fertilizers - hibiscus does not like them too much.
Young plants need to be replanted every year. To do this, mix in a pre-prepared pot or tub 2 parts of garden soil, 1 part of sand and 1 part of peat. If you are replanting a large plant, then the mixture should be prepared heavier.
From the age of three, the need for an annual transplant disappears: an adult plant must be transplanted every 2-3 years.
There is a categorical answer to this question - yes, we do! Formative pruning must be done annually, only under this condition will the Chinese rose delight you with its flowering. Each time after flowering, the tips of the shoots must be pruned, then the lateral shoots will grow, on which, in turn, buds will form. Keep in mind that hibiscus flowers only appear on young shoots, so each shoot that is not cut in time is another flower that you will not count for the next year.
In early spring, it is very useful to pinch all the shoots - including the young ones. Although pruning indoor hibiscus can be carried out throughout the year, it does not harm it at all.
Shoots that grow parallel to the main trunk (they are called "tops") must be cut off. Just like those of the branches that grow inside the crown. Don't worry about the flower, regular pruning is good for it, ensuring healthy growth and abundant flowering.
In apartments and offices, in most cases, the Chinese rose is grown. The plant looks like a small tree with a light brown, woody trunk. Young shoots are green, leaves do not fall off. If the growing conditions are not followed, indoor hibiscus does not bloom, but even in the absence of buds, the plant has a high decorative effect.
The light-loving species grows poorly and does not bloom with a lack of sunlight. Most often, a tub or flowerpot with a tree is placed next to a window, in a room whose windows face south or east. The western side is also suitable, if tall trees or shrubs with spreading branches do not grow nearby.
The pot is medium in size, not small, but not too large, otherwise the roots grow too much and take more nutrients. Hibiscus grows well in a wooden tub and a plastic flowerpot. It is important that there are drainage holes in the bottom, otherwise root rot is almost inevitable with abundant watering.
For growth and flowering, the substrate needs not only nutritious, but also loose. It is important that with abundant watering, the water does not stagnate in the flowerpot. Drainage is small stones, pebbles, clay shards, expanded clay at the bottom of the flowerpot. holes are required for the gradual removal of water from the flower pot.
At the flower shop you can buy soil for the Malvaceae family or prepare soil mixture at home. You will need 1 part of sand, leaf and sod land + 2 parts of humus.
A young Chinese rose is transplanted annually, adult trees - as needed, usually every two to three years. If the roots are actively growing, completely braiding with an earthen ball, the plant slows down growth, then a larger flowerpot will be needed.
When transplanting, proceed carefully so as not to damage the roots. Top dressing is not carried out for a week after transplanting.
Moving to a new soil is also advisable after purchasing a young Hibiscus from a flower shop. With an optimal soil composition, the plant quickly takes root in a new flowerpot.
Step-by-step video - instructions for transplanting an indoor Hibiscus:
Indoor hibiscus does not like dampness, drafts and cold. The optimum room temperature is above +22 degrees, but intense heat and a lack of fresh air negatively affect the plant.
In the summer, the room or office should be warm. If there is an air conditioner, then you need to check if cold air flows on the leaves.
In winter, during the period of suspension of the growing season, you can move the flowerpot with the plant to a cooler room: at the level of +17 .. + 18 degrees. The indicators should not be allowed to become extreme and fall less than +7 degrees: the thermophilic species freezes, rots and dies.
The Chinese rose loves high humidity (about 70%), but it is not always possible to maintain such indicators in a room or office, especially in winter, when central heating is turned on. Spraying in winter is not carried out, there is another simple method: put a container of water near the plant or periodically use a household appliance - a humidifier.
Indoor hibiscus loves moisture, but daily watering is not necessary. The liquid is added after the top layer has dried. Water must be defended for one or two days.
The most intensive watering is in spring and summer, with the active growth of young greenery and flowering. In autumn and winter, the tree rests, and the moisture level of the substrate is reduced.
Spray the leaves in the summer if the room is stuffy and watering is not enough to retain moisture. You can often wipe the greens with a damp cloth.
A sun room is a prerequisite for good growth and ejection of buds. Some varieties (dwarf species) do not tolerate bright light, direct rays on a hot day can lead to burns on the leaves. You will need a little shading or placing a flowerpot with a Chinese rose in a room with windows to the west or east.
Moderate application of mineral compositions improves growth, has a positive effect on flowering. It's important to know: an evergreen tree necessarily needs all the components, including potassium, for the active release of buds and magnesium, so that the leaves do not turn yellow. With nitrogen and phosphorus, you need to be more careful, add components in a minimum amount.
Many housewives carry out top dressing based on natural ingredients. A decoction with banana peel, succinic acid for plants gives a good effect.
To form a beautiful crown, you need to periodically cut off the lateral and apical shoots. Some housewives do not carry out measures to create a spectacular form, they limit themselves to hygienic pruning. Even in this case, the tree looks magnificent and "rich", but if you wish, you can slightly shorten the young branches in the right places in the spring in order to form the shape of a bush or tree.
In the absence of formative pruning, the bush will be wide, spreading. In good conditions, indoor hibiscus grows up to 3 m and more, and you cannot do without shortening the top. Pinching is carried out in the spring, during the growing season. The Chinese rose is a great decor for public spaces where it is not very cold and there are no drafts.
The first buds appear in late spring, with good care and sufficient lighting, flowering lasts throughout the summer. Often, even very young plants grown from cuttings bloom, if the hibiscus is in a warm, well-lit place, receives a complex of mineral fertilizers.
Each flower pleases the eye for several days, then fades, but in another place a new one appears. From autumn to the end of winter, you need to give the Chinese rose a little rest for the spring growing season and timely ejection of buds. If the florist observes the peculiarities of seasonal care, in winter he reduces the intensity of watering, fertilization, then the Chinese rose in the spring will be full of strength for the new season.
Inexperienced flower growers are not very popular with the seed method of propagating perennial flowers; they prefer to propagate such plants vegetatively, since this is a faster and more effective method. However, the Chinese rose belongs to those plants that are easily propagated by both seed and cuttings. The fact is that hibiscus seeds are very germinable, and crops do not need special care, so it is really very easy to grow such a rose from a seed. It should also be taken into account that the seed material of such a plant remains viable for 6 years.
Sowing seeds is carried out in the last days of February. Shortly before sowing, the seed is immersed in a pink potassium manganese solution for 30 minutes, after which it is thoroughly washed under running water. After that, it is placed for 24 hours in a solution of an agent that stimulates growth (Zircon, Epin or Fumara), while making sure that it only slightly covers the seeds, otherwise, due to a lack of oxygen, the embryos may die. Next, the seed is folded into a moistened gauze for germination, do not forget to provide it with systematic ventilation. For seeds to hatch, they need a lot of heat and moisture. In this regard, after they are placed in wet gauze, they are placed in a polyethylene bag in which there are several holes, through which air will flow to the seeds. After the sprouts appear, and as a rule, this happens about the third day, the seeds are planted in separate plastic cups with a volume of 0.5-1 liter.They are filled with a substrate consisting of peat, sand and wood ash. Make sure that the main root of the seedling does not wriggle or bend during growth. The planted seeds are covered with a thin layer of soil mixture, and the containers are covered with paper (film) on top.
In order to prevent blackleg, seedlings are spilled with a weak solution of Fundazole. For the same purpose, provide the plants with moderate watering. In order for them to grow and develop well, they will need a large amount of diffused light, be sure to protect the seedlings from direct sunlight.