Rose is deservedly considered the queen of flowers, therefore, despite the difficulties in care, almost all gardeners try to grow it. In order for the bushes to survive the cold, they need competent care in the fall and high-quality shelter for the winter. When and how to cover different roses - let's figure it out in the article.
The frost resistance of different types of roses varies greatly. Even within the same group, there are more and less cold-resistant varieties. Ground cover and park roses winter best in harsh conditions, climbing, miniature and bourbon roses are worse.
If we mention specific varieties, from the parks, Ritausma, Pink Grothendorst, Konrad Ferdinand Meyer, Lavinia, Hansa suffer little from the cold. Decorative hybrid varieties of rose hips, roses Jens Munch, John Davis, Snow Pavel, Scabrosa are also distinguished by high frost resistance. The varieties Rosa Mundi, Fritz Nobis, Louise Odier need the most thorough shelter.
Snow Pavement is a hybrid from the Rosa rugosa group, it differs not only in frost resistance, but also in shade tolerance, good immunity, and general undemanding care
Whether his rose needs a capital shelter, each gardener determines for himself, taking into account the peculiarities of the local climate, long-term weather forecast for the winter and varietal characteristics. The age of the bush and its general condition are also important. But the opinion that frost-resistant varieties can tolerate cold without loss, even in the absence of preparation, is erroneous. Plants need at least to huddle and "insulate" the roots. If the temperature drops to -30 ° C or lower in winter, roses need full cover.
Louise Audier is a bourbon rose that fully lives up to its reputation as a capricious flower
Roses are covered after the first frost, when the soil freezes slightly, the night temperature will be set at -5-7 ° C and this indicator will last about a week. In the south of Russia it is the end of November or even December, in the Urals and Siberia - the beginning of October, in the middle zone - the junction of October and November.
If you hurry, the air under the shelter heats up, the bush "deceived" by the heat will begin to grow new shoots. Once the time is right, you will harden the stems and roots of the rose.
Before sheltering, the rose must be properly prepared for the rest period:
Autumn dressing helps roses to regain strength after flowering and form flower buds for the next year
The rosebush sheds foliage reluctantly, in this it will need your help
Many roses strongly "litter" in the near-stem circle with petals; these and other plant residues must be removed in autumn
Copper preparations are detrimental to any pathogenic fungi.
Hilling helps protect the root collar from frost, but if it is carried out too early, it begins to pod
The bush from which you cut off the leaves and flowers must be cut off, and the long lashes must also be bent to the ground. Pruning is absolutely necessary - the smaller the bush, the better the above-ground part of it will overwinter.:
It is more convenient to remove the stems of a climbing rose from a support in several steps, so you need to start in advance
Pruning roses in the fall is carried out, guided by the principles and recommendations for the group to which your variety belongs.
"Real" burlap is now surprisingly difficult to find, so it is relatively rarely used to hide roses for the winter.
White covering material is an ideal option to protect roses from cold weather and, as such, is devoid of flaws
Cardboard is a short-lived material, but during one winter it is able to protect roses from cold weather.
Lapnik provides protection not only from frost - the sharp apah of the needles drives away rodents from roses
Mice can start in the straw, from which not only roses will suffer, but the whole garden.
Covering roses with plastic, it is imperative to ensure that ventilation is possible.
Depending on how thoroughly you need to insulate the rose, the following options for winter shelters for roses differ:
Dug-in roses in winter would be no different from snowdrifts, if not for spruce branches
An air-dry shelter is a little easier to build than a frame
For low roses, the frame can be easily built from greenhouse arches.
Covers for roses are sewn from the same covering material
In the "company" roses winter better. Therefore, it is advisable to cover several bushes at once. Warmth in winter comes from the ground, it is more useful to cover a large area for roses.
A larger shelter retains heat better in winter
Almost without shelter, roses overwinter only in warm southern regions. Throughout the rest of Russia, they need frost protection. It is equally important in the fall to properly prepare the bushes for wintering.
All roses do not need shelter, especially old garden and species roses, except for tea, Bourbon and Chinese. They are not afraid of even the most severe winters. They become winter-hardy after the first flowering, after which their growth stops, and the wood has time to mature well enough, which means - to prepare for wintering.
Garden roses, bred in our time, are distinguished by continuous flowering - starting to bloom in summer, they bloom until frost. At the same time, there is a constant growth of shoots, which do not have time to ripen before winter. Therefore, it is imperative to cover modern roses for the winter. Shrubs (shrubs) are considered winter-hardy, but they also need to be covered. From new shrub roses, wrinkled roses that bloom early can be left uncovered. They can bloom again, but flowering will be weak.
It is necessary to take into account the dimensions of roses: undersized (miniature and ground cover) are easy to cover, and tall erect (non-spreading) with a height of more than 1.2 - 1.5 m (semi-vine and large-flowered climbing) is much more difficult.
It is also necessary to think about preserving roses in winter when planting roses:
Finally, for the successful wintering of roses, it is very important to prepare them for the next winter:
Protection of roses by hilling. © Kevin Lee Jacobs
In principle, there are no ways to protect roses ideal for all occasions. Much depends on the capabilities of the gardener and the availability of covering materials, on specific weather conditions, on the frost resistance of roses, their size and the ability to bend to the ground.
Park roses, as a rule, are very rarely covered for the winter, because they are possess high enough winter hardiness.
And here floribunda, bush, ground cover, hybrid tea, climbing and standard roses be sure to cover... Moreover, it is quite difficult to cover the latter.
Important! Hybrid tea roses do not have good winter hardiness, and often in the spring they have to be cut "to zero", but if hilling was sufficient, the chance of finding living branches under it is high enough.
Video: shelter of hybrid tea roses
Obviously hard enough to cover climbing roses due to their great height.
The technique for covering climbing roses is as follows:
Advice! Before laying the roses, you can tie them with twine (twine) so that you get a long sheaf (bunch) and the branches do not stick out in different directions. After that, already under its weight, the sheaf (bunch) of roses easily tilts to the ground.
Video: shelter of climbing roses for the winter
It is not so easy to cover standard roses.
The specificity of the shelter of this variety is as follows: you dig in your rose from one side and carefully lay it down, pressing it with arcs. You fill up (spud) the base with earth or sand, and then everything is as usual - spruce branches (or other branches) and spunbond (or other covering material). In this case, do not forget to wrap the stem itself.
By the way! Some particularly scrupulous growers, in addition to wrapping the entire rose with a covering material, also put a frame on top, which is also covered.
Video: how to cover a standard rose for the winter
But it is best not to bend the bushes (especially adults, but it is quite possible to be very young), but simply install a frame around it, or wrap it directly with covering material, including a bole.
Winter is just around the corner, and rose lovers must prepare their beauties for the cold season. What needs to be done for this, says Elena Severyakova, an experienced florist.
Preparing heat-loving roses for the harsh conditions of winter should be started well in advance. Already at the end of July - beginning of August, they stop feeding them with organic matter, replacing it with potassium magnesium and potassium sulfate, and with the beginning of autumn they stop cutting off the faded inflorescences so that the plant stems can better prepare for winter. What else is important to do before the onset of frost?
Since pathogens overwinter on leaves, at the end of autumn all leaves should be removed and burned. This is a rather long and tedious procedure, but the result is worth it.I usually start pruning the leaves in mid-October, gradually exposing the lower part of the bushes so that all the leaves are already removed by the time they cover. Before the very shelter, the bushes should once again be treated with a solution of ferrous sulfate or a copper-containing preparation of the "Hom" type.
It is often recommended to spud the plants to a height of 10 cm with a layer of dry earth or peat to insulate the roots of roses for the winter. My experience shows that a covered adult plant, the root collar of which is at a depth of 5-7 cm in the ground, winters well even without additional soil insulation. This method requires considerable effort, especially if you have a lot of roses: in the spring, you will need to remove excess soil, and it is usually not so easy to come up with a place to store a large mass of dry soil. Therefore, I additionally huddle only young, not yet matured plants.
Except for the obligatory sanitization, when all diseased, dry and unripe shoots are removed, I usually do not prune roses in the fall to have more material for spring formative pruning. The degree of ripeness is usually determined by the color and it is as easy as possible to bend the shoot between the toes. I bend all other branches as low as possible to the ground, securing them along the entire length with metal arcs and pins made of thick wire with hooks at the ends.
I bend all other branches as low as possible to the ground, securing them along the entire length with metal arcs and pins made of thick wire
I bend all other branches as low as possible to the ground, securing them along the entire length with metal arcs and thick wire pins.Exceptions are hybrid tea roses, since their stems are usually quite strong, and in the spring they will still have a short pruning. Therefore, I cut them for the winter at a height of about 30-40 cm.Read about other nuances of pruning roses in the publications:
To make a rose beautiful, or When, why and how to cut roses
Important subtleties of pruning roses Do you need to prune buds on roses?
The risk of breaking the stem of a bent rose, especially at the base, is quite high, so it is imperative to do this before frost - and act carefully, gradually. However, usually in this way it is possible to reliably save most of the bush.
It is necessary to bend roses before frost
Often, large bushes of climbing and some park roses cannot be held with hairpins alone. Then you can press the entire bush to the ground with something heavy - slate pieces, a board, an old ladder - or take care of some permanent weights in advance to bend such bushes.
Large bushes of climbing and some park roses cannot be held only with hairpins
Speaking of park roses, it should be noted that most of them do not require special preparation for winter at all, but some beautifully flowering old varieties should still be bent to the ground in order to provide them with a reliable snow cover. This will be enough for them to delight you with lush flowering. To lay standard roses for wintering, they are buried on one side (from the one into which the stem was previously directed during planting) and tilted towards the tunnel so that the grafting site can be bent to the ground itself without damaging the stem. After that, the grafting is poured with a bucket of previously prepared dry soil, the earth is again poured to the roots and the whole plant is already covered in this form.
Despite their thermophilicity, roses perfectly tolerate frosts down to about -5 ° C, and their stems are additionally "hardened", so you need to start covering bushes already bent to the ground only with the onset of a steady cold snap to sub-zero temperatures, in the Moscow region this is usually the first decade November.
The rosary is prepared for shelter
The most reliable for roses in the middle lane is considered to be an air-dry shelter. To do this, in dry weather, over the plants prepared for wintering, install some kind of rigid frame and cover it with waterproof material, thereby creating a dry air space between the ground and the future layer of snow, a kind of "fur coat" for roses. Ideally, this shelter should remain waterproof and windproof in cold weather and regularly ventilated during thaws.
Installing the frame from available tools
In fact, we not only often have to deal with the shelter of roses on damp earth, but, having warmed the plants for the winter, we usually leave the garden until spring. Therefore, amateur rose growers have modernized this ideal air-dry method in accordance with our conditions. Now, instead of a waterproof one, a thick non-woven material is used, which provides the air exchange necessary for wintering plants in case of unexpected warming. ^ hide  You can choose a covering material by comparing offers of different online stores using the market. ^ collection [839.4]
How to make a frame for a shelter
So, to shelter roses for the winter over the prepared bushes, you need to install a strong frame - it can be made of wooden planks, metal arcs, or from some other available materials.
Frame for sheltering roses A rigid plastic mesh fixed with a "house" has proven itself well. The main thing is to create a small air gap between the shoots and future insulation. A thick non-woven material is laid on top of the frame to the ground in one, or better in two layers and pressed along the entire perimeter of the shelter (and, if necessary, from above) so that it will not be torn off even by a very strong wind.
If there is a possibility and desire, then on top of the non-woven material, you can also lay a layer of waterproof, for example, a polyethylene film, but always so that “vents” remain. I think this is superfluous: the non-woven fabric itself is almost impervious to winter moisture. Being covered with snow, such a shelter reliably protects roses from low temperatures. Unfortunately, its effectiveness decreases in the event of severe snowless frosts, but in such extreme conditions, the classic air-dry shelter does not help much. Spruce or pine spruce branches can be used as one of the layers of shelter; it provides additional protection from frost in the absence of snow.
Shelter with spruce branches will additionally protect plants from frost in the absence of snow
Text and photo: E. Severyakova. Read also:
Roses in the fall: care and preparation for winter shelter
Rose care in September: starting preparation for winter
Three ways to hide roses for the winter: honestly about the advantages and disadvantages of each
Caring for roses in full: how to plant, why prune and when to cover
Whether frosts threaten your rose, or Once again about the shelter of standard roses For which roses will thank you: my alternative approach to caring for a rose garden
We shelter sissies for the winter: roses, clematis, young thuja and forsythia (video)
What kind of shelters do you make for roses?
Whatever the material of the shelter, you should always leave free air space between it and the plant. Damping out is no less dangerous than freezing, and with the onset of a thaw (with too tight shelter), plants risk getting rotten or wet.
This method will provide the bushes with high-quality aeration, while the temperature under the shelter will be kept at about the same level. You will have to mount a frame (canopy) over the plant, it can be made from plywood sheets or board fragments, and then cover the resulting structure with a special covering material or plastic wrap. Covering material for roses for the winter should be fixed to the ground with something heavy (bricks, stones or metal staples). Such a "house" must be very strong, because it will have to withstand the weight of the snow masses. Its dimensions, and especially its height, should exceed the dimensions of the bush. With the onset of spring, you will be able to fold the material on one side (or raise it from below), thereby ventilating the plant.
Lapnik (branches of conifers) is an excellent natural covering material for roses for the winter, which will cost you completely free. By around the beginning of November, you should stock up on spruce branches. After harvesting, pruning bushes, coniferous branches should cover the ground of the trunk circle. The shoots that remain after pruning must be carefully wrapped with a wide fabric rope. If the plant has long branches, then after tying them, they should be gently bent to the ground, as far as their flexibility allows (without the threat of breaking). Secure the branches with wide metal brackets (bend pieces of dense wire like a hairpin), throw spruce branches on top. The main thing - do not forget to cover the ground with spruce branches in the place where the ground part of the bush will lie. This is especially true for climbing varieties.
Securing the climbing variety, photo:
If in doubt, you can additionally cover the flower with a non-woven material directly on top of the spruce branches, secure the ends of the shelter with heavy objects. In the spring, you can lift them up, thereby providing the bush with proper ventilation. How to prepare low-growing roses for winter? Such bushes should first be spud (peat can be used), and generously covered with the same spruce branches on top. After the snow falls, it will be possible to form a snowdrift on top of the branches
Shelter of a small bush, photo:
This material is widely used in various fields related to plants. Covering bushes with it for the winter is an excellent solution, since it allows air to pass through well, at the same time protects against frost, and prevents condensation from accumulating during a thaw. How to use this covering material for roses for the winter? Again, it is better to make a frame: metal arcs or fragments of a chain-link mesh are suitable for creating a "visor" over the bush. The ends of such a frame are securely fixed in the soil, the covering material is folded in half (this is an important point!) And cover the structure. The edges of the cover are fixed in the ways described above - with the help of heavy objects or a long board (it will be convenient to raise it in the spring for airing).
Frame over a small bush, photo:
How to cover roses for the winter if they are small in size (for example, dwarf varieties)? For these purposes, cardboard boxes can be used as a frame, having previously made holes in them. Plastic vegetable containers or worn out baskets can also be used quite successfully. Any of these structures can be covered with agrofibre on top, secured by the methods described above. To protect standard crops, you can use jute bags: cut off their bottom, put on the plant, tie from below (where the crown begins), cover with dry foliage or better with spruce branches, tie again, but already from above. The trunk can also be wrapped in burlap, and then re-wrap the resulting cocoon with lutrasil (for reliability).
What roses do not need to be covered for the winter? Park crops have sufficient winter hardiness to do without a protective cover in winter. In fact, some experts argue that the classification "park" as such does not exist, supposedly this is the definition of the most unpretentious varieties.
According to reviews on the relevant forums, these are: "Alba Mediland", a hybrid of Rugosa, Spinozissima (prickly rosehip), winter-hardy varieties of Canadian and American roses, etc. The so-called scale of winter hardiness of these flowers has three levels, which are determined by numbers: absolute winter hardiness (3- I zone), winter hardiness (4th zone), average winter hardiness (4-5th zone). If you buy seedlings, then there will be an indicator figure on the label.
For wintering, roses should go strong and strong, this can be achieved with the help of proper preparation. The preparatory period stretches from summer to the coldest days. Strong pruning in the summer is not done so as not to cause the growth of young shoots, but only cut off the faded buds, preventing the seeds from setting.
The main rule of pruning is not to touch the roses from the beginning of August until the arrival of frost. At this time, you can only pinch the tops of the shoots, preventing them from continuing to grow and taking away strength from the bush. Young shoots will still not have time to ripen before winter and will suffer from frost. The pruning method depends on the crop variety.
For example, frost-resistant park roses do not prune, but only do sanitary cleaning of the bush, removing diseased and weak shoots. Climbing roses are also pruned. Floribunda and hybrid tea roses are shortened significantly, leaving no more than 5 buds on the shoots.
The cut should be carried out only with a sharp knife or pruner so that the wood fibers do not wrinkle. It is done at an angle of 45 degrees above the bud directed outward, stepping back about 1 cm from it. After pruning, the remnants of the branches are raked and removed. Healthy parts of plants can be used for compost, sick ones are recommended to be burned.
You can use root and foliar dressings at the same time or alternate them with each other. Potassium and phosphorus should be the predominant elements at this time of the year. The addition of potassium increases resistance to disease, guarantees resistance to the vagaries of the weather and promotes the setting of flower buds. Phosphorus accelerates the maturation of the shoots and aids in root growth.
Phosphate-potassium fertilizer can be liquid or granular. The solution is used in dry weather, the granules are scattered under the bushes if it rains daily. The finished fertilizer must have a special marking - "autumn". If for some reason you could not get it, you can use potassium monophosphate, which is also cheaper.
The last feeding can be carried out just before the frost, the nutrients will be useful to roses in spring. For this, granules containing phosphorus and wood ash are scattered under the bushes. You can put rotted manure closer to the roots, which will dissolve in spring with melt water, and stimulate the active growth of new shoots.
In the southern regions, the second top dressing can be replaced with a compost cover. The fertilizer will simultaneously warm the roots and provide them with nutrients from the decomposition process.
Even if your roses in the current season were not sick with anything, they need preventive treatment before wintering. Microorganisms that cause diseases can successfully overwinter in the soil and in the spring infect young shoots, so you need to spray not only the bush, but also the ground under it.
Immediately after this, the plant is spud and covered. Before processing, the rose must be pruned and the leaves removed from it. Proven and effective drugs for the prevention of many diseases are Bordeaux liquid and a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate. In addition, industrial preparations are used for the same purpose, such as:
Fungicides are dissolved in water according to the instructions and applied by spraying. If you used any of the drugs during the spring treatment, replace it with another one, then the effect will be more effective.
One day my husband took me for my birthday to a private nursery where roses are sold. And there I saw (and this is in the Tver region) that the bulk of the seedlings grew not in greenhouses, but right in the open field.
Naturally, I could not resist and asked: “How do you cover these roses for the winter? Or do you sell everything in one year? "
But there were bushes of different ages (and therefore different prices). And all the roses were grafted onto rose hips, which were grown from seeds in a neighboring field.
And the owner of the kennel replied: “Look how big the field is. How can you cover it with something? We just walk between the rows and cover the roses with earth for the winter. "
And indeed. All kinds of ways to hide roses for the winter have not been invented. But this very advice is found almost everywhere: cover the roots with earth, sawdust or soil mixture.
In a word, the root system is first of all advised to insulate.
I did this for several years too. You can even put it another way: I acted this stupidly for a very long time. And every spring she raked the mound of earth poured in autumn over the roses.
And always below the level of the filled earth, the roses had green shoots with good living buds.
However, as soon as the earth was removed from the bushes, the shoots of the rose could suddenly turn black in the next few days.
That is, in other words, under an earthen shelter, roses winter well, but then ... Then they do not like the fact that they have taken off their “warm coat”.
But in fairness, we must admit that roses almost always grow back from the root.
Then I grew in huge numbers under the roses of chionodox, and in other places crocuses. And these flowers bloom very early, so they do not need shelter in the ground. It even hurts them.
And so I came to the decision that I would no longer cover the base of the rose bushes with earth.
At least those of them where early bulbous flowers are planted nearby.
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I wish you good health and beautiful flowers.