It has become very fashionable to decorate your plots with all sorts of novelties. In horticulture, the competition begins directly - who has the best site design. There are so many new products on sale for gardeners that digging the beds has already become boring, I want something new.
I read in some magazine about round beds, and I was carried away by this idea. The main work is obtained only when laying these beds, and in the future, only loosening and adding organic matter is needed.
To begin with, I pick up a strong stake for a garter of plants and nail a cross from strong slats to its top. In the future, I will attach the strings for the garter on these slats. The length of the stake is selected depending on the height of the planted plants. I drive the stake into the ground and draw a circle with a diameter of 0.9 cm - this is also important, because the sleeve of the film has a width of 1.5 m.From the circle I choose the ground by 30 cm and strengthen the walls with roofing material or linoleum so that the edge protrudes above the surface of the pit by 20-25 cm.Then I stick pegs around the circumference at least a meter long after 15-20 cm , a film sleeve is pulled over them. The pit is filled with plant and construction waste and manure, if any, to the top, and then a layer of good compost goes to the very top.
I pull the sleeve of the film on the stake, tie it, and pull the bottom over the pegs and strengthen it on the ground (well with an old tourniquet or elastic band). After a couple of days, you can already plant seedlings. It is good to ventilate such a ridge from above. You can even leave for a few days, just open the sleeve on top and strengthen the spandbond there in several layers.
I plant tomatoes in a circle of 6-7 bushes, and along the very edge I sow carrots, parsley or beets in one row. While the tomatoes are small, you can sow radishes between them. Tall varieties of tomatoes look very beautiful. Only they need a high stake, and the ropes must be tied immediately upon landing. From tall varieties planted Giraffe and Cherries, and between them - several nasturtiums.
The result is a gorgeous tomato tree blooming with nasturtium flowers. There was another combination: in the middle there were 2-3 bushes of tall varieties of tomatoes, and low varieties grew along the edge. For cucumbers, I still made warm ridges. Our summer is capricious, and the risk of being left with a bad harvest is great. For warm ridges, I first make biofuel. To do this, in mid-April, in warm weather, I put in one hole such a bed in layers of plant residues, hay, grass, manure, all kinds of waste in the form of rags and paper. It turns out a pile with a height of about 1.5 m.
I pour out two buckets of hot water on top and immediately cover it with rags, bags, paper, roofing felt, and on top - with an old, leaky film. I strengthen everything with boards, but I do not tamp it. In two weeks, steam should rise from the heap, which means that the biofuel is ready. Now you need to take it with a pitchfork in layers and put it in the pit to the brim, immediately pour earth and compost on top and cover it with foil. After two days, you can start sowing cucumbers. I sow dry seeds in such ridges and additionally cover them with spandbond. Cucumbers in such ridges did not hurt at all, which cannot be said about greenhouse plantings.
I was so carried away by round beds that I left only strawberries and potatoes for the usual ones. The neighbors say that I have begun to develop the site at a height. Raspberries are also convenient to grow in round beds. Very interesting compositions turned out with flowers. For a good mood, you need to plant more flowers, which I do with great pleasure.
Every year I try to grow something new, since there is no shortage of seed now. And I also have an idea - to surround all my flower beds with low wattle fences. I also read about this in one magazine and will embody the idea in my garden. I wish all gardeners and flower growers good luck!
O. Porechenko, amateur gardener
In order to keep the site in order, it is divided into smaller areas - the beds in which the plants are planted. Growing in beds makes it easier to care for plants, makes it possible to carry out crop rotation.
Types of beds
Is it obligatory to do on the plot of the garden, maybe you can plant vegetables arbitrarily, "with a solid carpet", and even mixed? The experience of individual adherents of organic farming shows - yes, it is possible, but such a technology is "aerobatics" of gardening, requires serious knowledge and experience and therefore is available to a few.
Farmers who are not inclined to radical experiments, but simply aimed at getting a good harvest, will definitely arrange beds on the site. Fortunately, so many of them have been invented that there is plenty to choose from.
The first thing to choose is whether the beds will be stationary or temporary. Temporary beds are broken every year, changing their shape and location. This is done after continuous digging or plowing. Stationary beds are arranged once and for all, they are never walked on. Stationary beds have so many advantages that we can say about them that they are the right beds. It should be borne in mind that it will not be possible to drive a tractor to a site with stationary beds and all the work will have to be done with a hand tool, but after a few years, maintenance can be reduced to a minimum.
Shape and size
Owners of small plots with an area of 6-10 acres most often divide it into square and rectangular beds, rather paying tribute to tradition. Practice shows that it is more convenient to care for long meter-wide beds. In such plantings, each plant can be provided with individual timely care, since it is easy to reach them, all plants are well lit. All this significantly increases the yield.
There is a very technological way of growing in narrow beds only 40-45 cm wide. Such structures allow you to get fantastic yields, but for this you need to apply a huge amount of mineral fertilizers. You can learn more about the device of narrow beds by getting acquainted with the method of D. Mittleider.
There are types of beds that allow you to get good yields in the most unfavorable conditions: in a humid, cold, arid climate, in small areas, on infertile soils. It:
Below, each species will be described in more detail.
What beds have a lot of crops?
Traditional garden beds allow you to get a good harvest. But if you set yourself the goal of getting the maximum output from a unit of area, you will have to change the traditional beds to something more progressive. So what is a modern crop garden?
Narrow long beds are considered unsurpassed in yield. Plants are planted on them in only two rows. It is noteworthy that the aisles with this method are twice as wide as the beds - their width is 90-100 centimeters. It is not worth pitying the land, without wide aisles you cannot get record yields.
Back in the nineteenth century, the famous Russian agronomist Ivan Evgenievich Ovsinsky was able to give a theoretical justification for this method of planting. It turns out that if the plants are planted in thickened rows, leaving wide aisles, the yield increases dramatically. Plants crowded in rows try to "conquer" the adjacent free space and form a mass of fruits and seeds. Using this principle, Ovsinsky increased the grain yield by 50%, and while applying a special system of tillage - and by 300%.
Summer residents who follow agrotechnical innovations now adhere to just such a planting scheme. In this way, you can grow tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers on a trellis, potatoes, strawberries.
Narrow beds are made stationary, for convenience they are enclosed with bumpers. It is not necessary to raise them specially above the soil level; over time, as compost and other organic matter are added to the box, they themselves will rise a little.
High yields cannot be obtained without top dressing. But if in the west narrow beds are associated with the Mittleider method, and, consequently, with mineral fertilizing, our gardeners, appreciating not only the yield, but also the natural taste and environmental safety of vegetables, use organic fertilizers. In order to always have enough nutritious and natural organic fertilizers, you just need to lay a compost heap on the site.
Practice shows that compost alone is enough to obtain high yields. So, using only compost and wood ash, M. Verkhov from the Samara region receives a ton of potatoes from a hundred square meters, planting it in narrow rows with meter-long row spacings. A ton of potatoes from a hundred square meters and at the same time not an ounce of "chemistry" is not a record!
High beds are considered to be structures that rise 20-60 cm above the ground. At first glance, they seem very comfortable, because you do not need to bend low when caring for plants. But with this method of growing, not all plants succeed, and those that succeed will need particularly careful care.
Tall beds dry out quickly and therefore are ideal for a rainy climate, in Russia this is the Far East and Primorye.
Usually, there is not enough precipitation, therefore, when arranging high beds, you need to be aware that they will have to be watered more often than usual.
Do-it-yourself tall beds should be made, for example, for such a structure as a kitchen garden. It makes no sense to equip the whole vegetable garden with them, since their construction "costs a pretty penny", and they do not give any special yield increases.
A kitchen garden is called a small garden bed 2-3 sq. m, located next to the garden house, where herbs and spices are grown so that they are always at hand.
Important! Perennial grasses should not be grown in the kitchen garden on a high garden bed, because they will freeze out in winter.
How to make high beds? The frames of high beds are laid out of bricks or hammered out of boards. The box is filled with earth. If you put a layer of vegetation or manure on the bottom of the box and sprinkle it with soil on top, then you get a mini-greenhouse with biofuel.
Garden beds with a height of 60 cm or more need a drainage layer. Stones, crushed stone, expanded clay are laid at the bottom of the box, leaving 30-40 cm in height for the soil.
There are small areas where there is not enough space for almost anything. In such cases, do-it-yourself vertical beds help out, which can be arranged even on a loggia. In addition to saving space, they have other advantages:
you can decorate an ugly wall or the fences do not come into contact with the soil, rarely get sick with fungal diseases, you do not need to weed - there is simply no place for weeds in vertical beds.
Disadvantages of vertical beds:
the root system is in a limited amount of soil, so plants need frequent feeding; the soil dries up quickly, and you have to water the plants every day. Perennial crops freeze out in winter.
There is a successful experience of growing strawberries, spices, salads, cucumbers and zucchini, tomatoes in a vertical culture. Different cultures have their own design options. So, strawberries are most often grown in barrels or large-diameter plastic pipes. Vertical strawberry beds are arranged like this.
In a PVC pipe (diameter 150 mm, length 150-170 cm) with a drill with a crown nozzle, holes are made every 20 centimeters, placing them in three rows. The lower end of the pipe is closed with a lid. The pipe is placed vertically and fixed in a stable position. Take the second pipe. PVC (diameter 20 mm), the same length. Small holes (2-3 mm in diameter) are punched in the upper part halfway. Wrap a narrow pipe with sacking, secure with twine. The lower end is hermetically closed. One pipe is inserted into the other, the gap between them is covered with earth. Strawberry seedlings are planted in the "windows". The narrow pipe is filled with water.
Tomatoes, cucumbers, salads, basil are planted in fundamentally different designs. They are arranged in horizontal rows, hanging containers with earth on a wall or similar support, or they are placed on long narrow shelves.
Climbing vegetables grow well in regular casks.
A metal or plastic barrel without both lids is placed vertically. Half fill it with plant residues, a layer of fertilized soil 30-50 cm is poured on top. A few days later, when the earth in the barrel settles, several plants are planted (usually zucchini or cucumbers, but there may be melons, watermelons) .If you make such a device in early spring and install small arcs with a film for the first time, you will get not just a vertical bed, but a mini greenhouse on biofuel - a kind of rural warm manure ridge. When the threat of frost blows, the film is finally removed and the plants begin to grow freely, braiding the barrel. Over time, their leaves will completely cover it.
If you need to get a harvest of early vegetables, but there is no greenhouse on the site, you can build its simplified version - a warm bed that allows you to run a month in growing vegetables. Such structures begin to be laid in the fall, but if you hurry, you can have time to make warm beds in the spring. Most often, cucumbers and other pumpkin seeds, as well as melons and gourds are planted in them.
Do-it-yourself warm beds can be prepared in two ways: in a trench or on the surface.
Preparing a warm bed on the surface:
Dig up a bed 1 meter wide, arbitrary length. Lay fresh cow dung on the dug-up ground with a layer of at least 10 centimeters. Pour a layer of fertile soil (15-20 cm thick) on top and gently level it with a rake without mixing the layers. Spill with warm water. Cover with black film. or with a black non-woven fabric, secure it around the edges. Plant vegetables by making slits in the foil.
Preparing a warm bed in a trench:
Dig a trench a meter wide and 30-40 centimeters deep. Lay a 10-centimeter layer at the bottom of any plant residues: branches, sawdust, leaves, straw. Tamp down. Put a layer of fresh manure. Cover with a layer of fresh earth. Spill with warm water. Such a bed will last several years. In the first year, cucumbers are planted in it, and then other crops according to the crop rotation.
Warm beds on virgin soil
There is an interesting way to cut virgin soil using warm beds. It eliminates the need for a tractor and cultivator. You need to proceed as follows.
A frame for a garden bed, a meter wide and of arbitrary length is hammered from the boards. The frame is installed directly on the turf. The ground inside the frame is covered with cardboard. A layer of any unnecessary vegetation is placed on the cardboard: last year's weeds, branches, fallen leaves. In a 10-liter bucket, prepare the preparation " Baikal ”: add 100 g of sugar to a bucket of water, stir and pour 100 ml of“ Baikal ”into a bucket. Let it brew for at least 20 minutes. Spill the garden from the watering can first with clean water, and then with the prepared solution. Cover everything with a layer of earth.
"Baikal" accelerates the decomposition of plant residues, and such a bed heats up in a matter of days. The cardboard does not allow weeds to germinate, and after a year it will decompose and turn into fertilizer itself. Any vegetables or strawberries can be planted in such a structure. Already next year, the soil under such a bed will be completely cleared of annual and perennial weeds.
If the site is small and there is no room for flower beds on it, then instead of a flower garden, beautiful beds can be broken. Such plantings are pleasing to the eye no less than a flower garden, and at the same time they allow you to get the same harvest from a square meter as from ordinary beds.It is easiest to equip beautiful beds with your own hands using joint planting.
Plants can be combined in height and color. Salads alone provide a ton of possibilities for color design. Even on an ordinary garden bed, plants can be planted not in even rows, but in waves - such "waves" from lettuce, cabbage and onions will immediately add aesthetics to the garden.
Another good way to decorate the site is to plant flowers among the vegetables: marigolds, calendula, chamomile. These plants bloom nonstop throughout the summer and beautify the site. In addition, they repel pests. Marigolds are especially useful in this sense, with which you can plant almost every garden bed, including potato ones. The roots of marigolds disinfect the soil, cleanse it of fusarium, wireworm and nematodes.
Leaves and flowers scare off cabbage whites, thrips, bedbugs, Colorado potato beetle, aphids. Flowers can be planted simply along the perimeter of the garden bed or alternate with vegetable plants.
Beautiful beds in the country are not only plants, but also fences. Decorative fences are made of bricks, wicker and plastic structures. But the most beautiful ones are obtained from natural or artificial stone. Large stones are simply laid out around the perimeter. Despite the simplicity of such a fence, the beds look very dignified with it.
Smaller stones are placed in several levels:
They dig a trench 30 centimeters deep around the perimeter. The deepening is covered with sand or concreted. When the foundation is dry, stones are laid, interlocking them with cement mortar. One of the most interesting options is called a French bed. "French garden" is arranged in the form of geometrically regular figures, which, in turn, are placed on the site in the video of an intricate ornament, combining triangular, rectangular and trapezoidal beds. Plants are placed on them carefully, taking into account not only agronomic requirements, but also the compatibility of color and shape. As a result, the beds become as close as possible to flower beds, and the site itself becomes a park. The plot is measured and a drawing plan is drawn up on paper indicating all sizes. The soil on the site is prepared in the usual way: they dig up and harrow. With the help of pegs and twine, mark the site. With a bayonet shovel, select the soil where there will be paths (the beds will be above the soil level). A chopper is used to make parallel furrows in which cultivated plants are sown and planted.
Before planting strawberries in the greenhouse, you should prepare the soil. The greenhouse soil should be fertilized with high quality peat and humus. In addition, strawberries need good nutrition throughout the day, which requires the introduction of mineral complexes and fertilization into the soil.
Strawberries are grown in modern greenhouse structures using mustache-shaped planting material formed during the past growing season. The development of the root system and the further yield of greenhouse strawberries depend on the quality of such whiskers. Before planting, each bush must be checked for pests and diseases.
The standard planting pattern for greenhouse strawberries is 25 x 30 centimeters. If additional artificial lighting is used during a short spring day, the first crop will be formed in mid-March.
Planting dwarf apple seedlings is carried out taking into account the following features of the garden:
With regard to the distance between fruit rows, in both cases, a distance of 4 meters should be adhered to.
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Planning for future plantings begins with the harvest. Most often, the complete liberation of the territory is carried out in the fall. At the same time, they carry out the main crops for winter, winter garlic, onions and a number of other crops with a long growing season.
Distribute the territory based on the needs of the family or business. Then they outline what will be planted and in what place. Not all gardeners use the compaction method, although it makes it possible, without reducing the yield of the main plant, to obtain additional products from accompanying crops.
It turns out that such "sharing" gives certain advantages: