Biological features of ordinary horseradish


"Eat fucking food - and you will be tenacious"

As you can see, the Russian proverb highly appreciates a culture such as horseradish or village horseradish (Armoracia rusticana Lam.). It turns out that it was grown and used by Russian peasants for a long time. However, now not all vegetable gardens can be found with this culture.

Meanwhile, this plant is widespread in Europe, Asia, Africa, North America. It is bred and found in the wild throughout the European part of Russia, in Belarus, in the Carpathian region, in the North Caucasus and in Siberia. It is believed that its homeland is the southeastern regions of the European part of Russia or Germany. Even the ancient Slavs used wild horseradish for food.


According to the first written reports of the Slavs, they have been growing it since the 9th century. Horseradish was used as a vegetable and medicinal plant in traditional nutrition and treatment in Russia. Gradually, it was introduced into the culture, and they began to grow it in vegetable gardens. Now it is difficult to say whether a person domesticated an unpretentious savage or, on the contrary, took advantage of a medicinal food savage. The people of Suzdal have long planted horseradish in the river valleys in the beds. It is believed that Suzdal horseradish is the most juicy and evil (spicy).

Horseradish value

For medicinal and nutritional purposes, one- biennial rhizomes and young horseradish leaves are used. Horseradish is one of the earliest open field leafy vegetable plants when grown in a biennial or perennial crop. The leaves and rhizomes of this plant contain sugars, fatty oil, starch, resinous substances. Depending on the duration of cultivation, horseradish contains 23-32% dry matter, 4.5% protein, 9.6% carbohydrates. Rhizomes and horseradish leaves are rich in minerals: potassium, sodium, calcium, copper salts. It contains 2.7% nitrogenous substances in the form of asparagine, glutamine and arginine.

Horseradish also contains a significant amount of vitamins C, B1, IN2as well as saponins, flavonoids, mustard oil, enzymes. In terms of the content of ascorbic acid, it surpasses most vegetable crops. It is five times more in horseradish than in lemon - up to 200 mg per 100 g of raw mass. Grated rhizomes and their juice are a strong antiscorbutic agent. The pungent taste and odor are given to horseradish by substances containing sulfur.

The burning taste of horseradish is due to the essential oil - isothiocyanic acid allyl ester, which occurs as a result of the decomposition of sinigrin glycoside. It breaks down in water into its constituent parts, giving the dishes a specific smell and taste. From the grated horseradish, mustard oil, allyl isothiocyanate, is released, which has a distinct antimicrobial effect. The sharp specific taste, smell and yellowish color of horseradish is precisely due to the presence of allyl mustard oil, which improves appetite.

Its content ranges from 50 to 215 mg per 100 g of raw material. Horseradish helps to improve the digestion process by stimulating the secretion of gastric juice, increases the secretion of the digestive glands, and has a diuretic effect. Horseradish rhizomes are well preserved until spring.

Horseradish leaves taste less pungent than rhizomes. They contain up to 115 mg of carotenoids per 100 g of wet weight. The presence of such bactericidal substances as allyl isocyanates and isopropyl isocyanates makes it possible to widely use horseradish leaves for pickling cucumbers and tomatoes.

The antimicrobial property of horseradish, discovered due to the high content of phytoncides in this plant and the bactericidal effect, is provided by the presence of lysozyme in it. These properties of horseradish have long been noticed by people. Horseradish phytoncides are not destroyed by saliva or gastric juice and contribute to the secretion of substances important for digestion in the intestines. It is not for nothing that the proverb is used: "Fuck, they won't let the cabbage dashing". Thanks to phytoncides of grated horseradish, fresh meat and fish can be stored in a sealed container for many days, and fruits, vegetables and berries up to 6-7 months. Therefore, horseradish is widely used in the food and canning industry.


Biological features of horseradish

Horseradish - perennial herb of cabbage family... His rhizome is powerful, thick, fleshy. The root system of this culture is fibrous with powerful adventitious roots covered with a yellowish-white bark. Along the entire length of the root, there is a large number of dormant buds arranged in a spiral, from which, under favorable conditions, new roots and rosettes of leaves can form. Under natural conditions, horseradish annually forms annual roots up to 50 cm long. For many centuries this plant has adapted to reproduction by rhizomes, which are not only organs for supplying nutrients, but also organs of continuation of this botanical species.

The horseradish root system is usually located rather densely in the upper soil layer at a depth of 25-30 cm and is evenly distributed in all directions with a diameter of up to 60 cm.As the plant grows, the roots penetrate to a depth of 2.5-5 m.

Horseradish can grow in one place for five years or more. However, the central root of a perennial plant lignifies, becomes coarse and, when processed, does not produce high quality products. In mass production, it is cultivated in one place for 1-2 years. Horseradish stems 0.5-1.5 m high, erect, branched. Its leaves are dark green, very large. Basal: oblong or oblong-oval, whole, with a crenate edge, the lower stem leaves are pinnately separate, the middle ones are oblong-lanceolate, the upper ones are linear, almost entire. The total number of leaves on a plant depends on the feeding area, age and cultivation technique.

The plant blooms in the second year after planting cuttings. Plants of the second year of life start growing in early spring, as soon as the soil thaws. The beginning of the extension of peduncles in the conditions of the Leningrad region, depending on weather conditions, is observed in late April - early May. By the beginning of flowering, the height of the main stem reaches 100-130 cm, the mass of the entire ground part can be up to 3 kg. The flowers at the bottom of the inflorescence begin to open in early June. Flowering lasts up to a month. Small white flowers are collected in racemose inflorescences. It takes 2-5 days from the beginning of blooming of a flower to its wilting, and every morning they open, and in the evening they close again.

Horseradish is a cross-pollinated plant. Pollen is mainly carried from flower to flower by insects. The fruit is an oblong or spherical pod 1.5-2.5 cm long. Horseradish seeds are red-brown, very small. The mass of 1000 seeds is 0.4 g. Seed germination is low - 20-25%. Under favorable soil and climatic conditions, seedlings appear 6-7 days after sowing. Horseradish cotyledons are very small - 1-1.5 mm. The first pair of true leaves is formed 8-10 days after germination, by which time the length of the main root reaches 8-10 cm. By the end of summer, plants obtained from seeds do not differ from those grown from cuttings. They form 3-5 rosettes, about 20-25 leaves.

In most cultivated forms, seeds are not set. Horseradish has the ability to reproduce vegetatively. The smallest pieces of rhizome form a growth bud and restore the whole plant.

Horseradish is a cold and frost-resistant plant, winters well in the open field. Horseradish is able to withstand frosts down to -25 ° С and spring frosts after the growth of leaves up to -8 ... -10 ° С. High frost resistance allows you to grow horseradish in the northernmost regions of Russia. It does not lose its vitality even with temperature drops during the winter. Our "February windows" are not very dangerous for him. Along with the frost resistance of mature rooted plants, a decrease in temperature to -6 ... -7 ° C can be detrimental to unrooted seedlings.

Favorable temperature for horseradish growth is + 17 ... + 20 ° С. Temperatures above + 25 ° С negatively affect the growth and development of plants: the growth rate decreases, diseases intensify. Summer temperatures above + 30 ° C are detrimental to plants: the growth of leaves stops, they coarse and dry out. Horseradish can grow in shaded areas with varying daylengths, but the highest yield can be obtained in high light conditions.

Horseradish needs high soil and air humidity. A high demand for horseradish water is noted throughout the growing season. This is due to its morphological features, and, first of all, the structure of the aboveground organs and the root system. Forming a large leaf apparatus, horseradish evaporates a huge amount of water, and the root system, which has penetrated deep into the soil, has an underdeveloped suction part in the upper soil layer. Therefore, the optimum soil moisture for the cultivation of this crop is 60-70% of the total field moisture capacity.

Horseradish can grow even with a lack of moisture, but the quality of the rhizomes deteriorates and the yield decreases. Excessive moisture creates unfavorable conditions for the growth and development of the root system of this culture, which leads to decay. The rhizomes become watery, the content of sugars, mineral salts and vitamins decreases in them. Their upper parts with apical buds are especially sensitive to waterlogging.

Horseradish makes high demands on soil fertility. Neutral or slightly acidic areasotherwise the yield will be low. To obtain high yields of good quality horseradish, it is necessary to apply fertilizers with a certain combination of nutrients. This crop is sensitive to soil salinity. In the first half of the growing season, horseradish most of all needs nitrogen, in the second - in potassium.

It consumes phosphorus relatively evenly. Of great importance in the cultivation of horseradish is the provision of soil with microelements - iron, manganese, copper, zinc, boron and molybdenum, which improve the chemical composition of rhizomes, increasing the content of vitamins and enzymes.

Read the second part: Horseradish ordinary: varieties, reproduction and planting methods →

Valentina Perezhogina,
candidate of agricultural sciences

Read all parts of the article "Growing horseradish in garden plots"
  • Biological features of ordinary horseradish
  • Horseradish: varieties, reproduction and planting methods
  • Horseradish growing, harvesting, diseases and pests
  • The use of horseradish in medicine
  • The use of horseradish in cooking. Horseradish recipes

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Growing technology

Cuttings intended for planting are harvested in the fall at the same time as harvesting... As a rule, small branches are used for this, cut off from the main rhizome. The size of the cuttings is about 25 cm in length and 0.5–1 cm in diameter (the more severe the climate of the area, the more powerful the cutting should be). The bottom of the plant is marked in the form of an oblique cut and placed in the ground at an angle of 30 °.

Horseradish loves fertile, loamy or sandy loam soil... The site should be moderately humid and lighted (partial shade). The reaction of the soil is closer to acidic, around pH = 6. Favorable predecessors are cereals and legumes.

Important! Horseradish is able to live in one place for up to 10 years, so the site for it is chosen with great care.

Preparations containing potassium, nitrogen and sulfur are suitable for feeding.... Horseradish needs regular weeding and careful loosening of the soil. To combat fungal diseases (black rot and white rust), fungicides are used, and broad-spectrum insecticides help to remove insect pests (horseradish and rapeseed leaf beetle, cabbage white beetle and horseradish flea).

In the ground

For planting horseradish in open ground, raised (high) beds are made:

  1. In autumn, the soil is dug to a depth of about 40 cm, a complex of fertilizers is applied (5–9 kg of compost or rotted mullein, 25 g of urea, 50 g of superphosphate and 35 g of potassium chloride per 1 m² of land).
  2. In the spring, re-digging is carried out, a ridge of the earth is formed, which is strengthened with boards or other improvised means.
  3. Prepared cuttings are deepened into the ground, leaving a distance of 30 × 70 cm between plants. 2-4 cm of soil should rise above them.

In a container

So that horseradish does not grow over the site, it is planted in a bucket or barrel... For this:

  1. The container is filled with soil mixed with humus.
  2. Buried in the ground, leaving sides with a height of 2-3 cm.
  3. Cuttings are planted in the prepared "flower bed".

Top dressing and watering with this method of cultivation is carried out as usual.... During harvesting, a bucket or barrel just needs to be pulled out of the ground and turned over on its side. Horseradish roots will not be damaged, they will be easy to reach.

Features of growing different varieties

Horseradish propagates mainly by cuttings... Seeds are also suitable for growing Katran, but large ones are chosen among them - they germinate faster. The optimal planting time is autumn or spring.

Agricultural technology for ordinary horseradish consists in timely watering and protection from insect pests... With sufficient fertility and light texture of the soil, the plant practically does not need serious fertilizing.

Reference. Some varieties (Atlant, Valkovsky) tolerate drought, frost and infestations of a horseradish flea well.

The biggest challenge is growing wasabi.... This culture naturally grows along the banks of mountain rivers, so it loves humid air and regular irrigation with cool fresh water. At the same time, the plant does not tolerate stagnant water in the soil and sudden temperature changes (it should not go beyond + 7 ... + 23 ° C).


Why spring plum processing is needed

Treatment of plums in the spring from pests and diseases is a preventive measure. If this event is not done, after the onset of warmth, all the insects that hibernated in the soil and under the bark of trees will wake up. The procedure is aimed at eliminating them and the larvae laid by them.

It is important to do prevention only in early spring. If this is done during flowering or fruiting, it can significantly harm the tree, and chemicals will penetrate the berries, which will provoke food poisoning when they are consumed.


Garden jasmine (Chubushnik). Growing jasmine in the garden

Chubushnik - one of the most popular beautiful flowering shrubs in the landscaping of central Russia. "Garden jasmine" - this is how lovers call the chubushnik for its resemblance to real jasmine, which is grown in greenhouses or indoors.

Let's talk about what kind of plant it is. A little about the history of the chebushnik, its biological characteristics and varieties. About, how to grow garden jasmine on your site, about the rules of pruning and reproduction.And also in what compositions from various garden plants the mock-orange will look more successful.

The history of the distribution and selection of mock-orange (garden jasmine)

Chubushnik genus received the Latin name (Philodelphus L.) in honor of the Egyptian king Ptolemy Philadelphus. In nature, there are about 60 species that live in the temperate latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, America and Asia. More than half of the species have been introduced into culture. It is called "chubushnik" for the soft part of the wood from which the stems were made for smoking, and jasmine - for the white fragrant flowers.

The Lemoine family began to actively engage in breeding varieties. Since the 1950s, Victor Lemoine and his company Lemoine and Son have been widely known for their breeding achievements with herbaceous floral perennials and flowering shrubs - hydrangeas, mock-mushrooms, deuts and weigels. Many varieties bred then are popular today.

Lemoine's son and his wife, Madame Lemoine, were also actively engaged in breeding, and Madame bred several varieties on her own. Chubushniki were one of the last cultures that Lemoine Sr. drew attention to, so about 40 varieties were the result of joint family creativity. These were mainly plants of hybrid origin, obtained from crossing the small-leaved mock-orange with the common mock-orange.

Almost all breeders pay special attention to the aroma of flowers, considering it the main advantage of the plant. The aroma of the varieties is very diverse: from subtle floral to bright fruit and berry. The exception is varieties with double flowers, which, due to the reduction of stamens into petals, practically do not smell, but they bloom for a longer time, since pollination does not occur.

Chubushniki spread very quickly due to the fact that the plant reproduces well by cuttings and seeds. In the 18th century in Russia, chubushnik was grown in royal gardens along with lilacs and roses. In Europe, hybrid chubushniki of American and Asian origin appeared in the XIV century. The varieties obtained by Lemoine became popular in Europe, and since that time the description of forms and varieties has been given enough space in the specialized literature.

A great contribution to the creation of promising varieties for Russia, winter-hardy and highly decorative, was made by N.K. Vekhov. He was engaged in the selection of a chubushnik at the Lipetsk forest-steppe station in the middle of the last century. During his work here, by the method of interspecific hybridization, he created about 30 interesting hybrid forms of the mock-orange, among the most popular of them can be distinguished varieties "Academician Komarov", "Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya", "Kazbek", "Blizzard", Elbrus, "Airborne assault", "Komsomolets", "Junnat", "Pearl", "Obelisk", "Moonlight", "Snowballs", "Arctic", "Memory of Vekhov".

Biological features of chubushnik (garden jasmine)

Representatives of the genus are mainly deciduous shrubs of the Saxifrage family with simple large, opposite leaves. Flowers are often white, fragrant, clustered at the ends of lateral branches, appear on the plant in May, flowering lasts 7-10 days. But sometimes they are single or 2-3 pieces in shields.

Simple forms of sepals and corolla petals have 4 each, there are many stamens. The fruit is a four-leaf capsule with numerous small seeds. Chubushnik plants form sprawling high bushes from 1 to 4 m. Both winter-hardy and thermophilic species are found in the genus.

The most common in culture on the territory of Russia are the following types: Caucasian mock-orange, pale mock-orange (common) and its many garden forms, chubushnik large-colored, small-leaved mock-orange, chubushnik "Lemoine", as well as hybrid varietiesN.K. Vekhova.

How to grow garden jasmine on your site. Chubushnik pruning rules

Chubushnik (jasmine) pruning

Seedlings are planted in a permanent place most often in the fall, as they take root better. The soil is prepared nutritious, light, well-drained. With proper care and pruning, a chubushnik in one place can grow up to 20-40 years. Then the plantings are renewed. Chubushnik is neutral to soil acidity, therefore it can be grown both on slightly acidic and alkaline ones.

When planting, the root collar should not be deepened by more than 2-3 cm.

Chubushnik (garden jasmine) the culture is moisture-loving, in the dry summer months it requires weekly watering.

In a sunny place, it always forms larger flowers, does not stretch, blooms more abundantly. In the shade and partial shade, formative pruning is used to maintain decorativeness, since flowering is still reduced. Dwarf varieties with golden leaves are generally undesirable to plant in the shade.

To maintain decorativeness, sanitary pruning of broken shoots and twigs is carried out annually in spring.

In spring or autumn, formative pruning is carried out, the number of shoots of different ages is normalized on the bush. Leave according to the scheme:

  • 3-5 annuals, 3 - two-three-year-olds, 3-5 four-year-olds.

Shoots older than six years are cut completely. Also, once every 6-10 years, a strong rejuvenating pruning is carried out, a year it forms many annual "fattening" shoots, the bush will be thickened, the shoots will stretch out and overwinter badly, as a result the plant will freeze strongly and may die.

Reproduction of chubushnik (garden jasmine)

Reproduction of chubushnik (garden jasmine)

Mostly garden jasmine varieties are propagated by cuttings - green (in July) and lignified (in February). To create the correct standard forms and grafting, seedlings are grown.

Chubushnik reproduces by seeds very well, but the grade is not preserved. The seeds are small. They start collecting boxes as soon as they change color from green to yellowish. They are harvested, dried in warm, ventilated rooms, waiting for cracking and release of seeds. Seeds are stored in paper bags or sealed glass containers at a temperature not higher (4-5 ° C).

Sowing is carried out before winter or in winter on snow cover on previously prepared ridges or grown through seedlings in greenhouses and greenhouses.

When sowing in greenhouses, the seeds are pre-soaked in warm water for three days, then sown in boxes superficially without soil. Seedlings appear by the end of the 2nd week, a month later they start picking.

Also, a small number of plants can be obtained by the method of layering, division, root suckers. But the mother plants should be located freely.

Today, one of the promising growing technologies is tissue culture. Chubushniki easily reproduce vegetatively, "microplants" after a year or two grows look like standard seedlings. With this technology, the grade and a very high multiplication factor are preserved in comparison with cuttings.

These shrubs bloom profusely in the garden in well-lit places, they can grow in partial shade, but in highly shaded places they stop blooming altogether. They are used in single and group plantings.

Chubushnik (garden jasmine) in group compositions

Chubushniki (garden jasmine) use in plant compositions different species and varieties with different heights, flowering times. They go well with other beautiful flowering shrubs: hydrangeas, weigels, spireas.

Chubushniki look spectacular against the background of trees with an openwork crown or brightly colored foliage.

Low-growing mock-mushrooms will take its rightful place in rockeries or on an alpine slide.

Tall chubushniki can be planted along the fence in the form of a hedge.

Skillfully combining chubushniki (jasmine) in compositions, you can create groups of continuously flowering plants:

The first version of the composition with chubushnik (garden jasmine)

Scheme of planting plants in a composition with mock-mushroom No. 1. (Click to enlarge).

  • The starter plant is best planted fluffy chubushniki (Fig. 2) or odorless (Fig. 1). Both are about three meters high and bloom in July.
  • If the composition is in the shape of a circle, then around them you can plant lower chubushniki thin-leaved (Fig. 4) and new grade "Alabaster" (Fig. 3). Their height is about 2 m, they bloom in June. If the composition is cascade-shaped, then it can be planted, as shown in the diagram.

The next tier can be formed from a low (up to 0.8 m) varieties "Ermine mantle" (Fig. 5) - (blooms from mid-June to mid-July) and undersized non-flowering varieties such as "Gnome" (Fig. 6) with very small and narrow light green foliage, up to 30 cm high.

The second version of the composition with chubushnik (garden jasmine)

Planting scheme in composition with mock-mushroom No. 2

  • In the center of the composition, a mock-orange variety is planted "Airborne assault" (Fig. 4)
  • For him to land thuja western "Emerald" (Fig. 3)
  • On both sides of the thuja, place a chubushnik "Bel Etoile" (Fig. 1)
  • Similarly, from the "Airborne Assault" place crown mock-orange "Aureus" (Fig. 2)
  • In the foreground, plant in front of the chubushniki "Mahonia holly" (Fig. 5).

The third version of the composition with chubushnik (garden jasmine)

The scheme of planting plants in a composition with chubushnik No. 3

Create on your site plant mixborderblooming continuously from early spring to late autumn. For the composition you will need:

  • Juniper horizontal varieties "Prince of Wales" (Fig. 1) or "Wiltoni" (Fig. 2) - This creeping plant will cover the soil with an evergreen green carpet. It is advisable to pick one variety of juniper. The diagram shows two of the possible options. Plant junipers in one row in the form of a long, arched border.
  • Heatherswith yellow leavesvarieties"Boskop" (Rsi. 3) - compact evergreen shrub 30-40 to 50 cm high, with lilac flowers. We also plant the heather border in one row - in the form of an arc.
  • Heather varieties with yellow leaves"Gold Haze" (Fig. 4) - a small evergreen shrub 40-50 to 70 cm high, blooms with white flowers. This variety of heather, planted in one row, will complete our compositional oval.
  • Chubushnik "Avalanche"or chubushnik"Erectus". "Avalanche" (Fig. 5) - shrub 1.5 meters high with falling branches and semi-double flowers on them. Outwardly, resembling an avalanche. The flowering shrub emits a strong strawberry aroma. "Erecrus" (Fig. 6) - plant 1-1.5 m high. Small, compact, erect shrub, with a dense crown. The flowers are white, numerous, exuding a strong strawberry aroma. Having chosen one of the proposed options, we plant a chubushnik. This is the starting plant in the composition..
  • Apple tree of Nedzvedsky (weeping form) (Fig. 7) is a very decorative tree. It blooms with pink flowers, the reverse side of the leaves is painted in a burgundy shade, the fruits are small apples, reminiscent of cherries, are also bright burgundy. Crown shape falling to the ground. The apple tree is planted after the chubushnik is planted "Avalanche" or "Erectus".
  • Scumpia Royal Purple (Fig. 8) is just a gorgeous plant! Very beautiful, with purple-red leaves, 1.5 m high. The flowers are small pinkish, collected in openwork inflorescences, during fruiting, covered with long reddish hairs, which outwardly resembles light pink clouds. Scumpia will be located almost in the center of the composition - a kind of bright and at the same time delicate spot.
  • Japanese spirea"Shirobana" (Fig. 9) - not too tall shrub up to 0.8 m high, with dark green leaves. The flowers are small, collected in inflorescences, the color of which changes from white to bright pink, less often red. Great for rock gardens, low curbs, coniferous compositions. Spirea will serve as a soft transition from burgundy-pink apple trees of Nedzvedsky to purplish red Scumpies.
  • Chubushnik "Arctic" (Fig. 10) - shrub up to 1.8 m high. The branches are thin, drooping, the flowers are graceful, double pure white, with a weak aroma. The last in the composition will be "Arctic", it will complete the riot of colors in the composition

Environmental features of the composition:

  • You need to land in a well-lit and wind-protected place.

Decorative features of the composition:

  • Some plants have a double decorative effect due to the color of the leaves.

! For a note: Before you start purchasing plants (for any composition), as well as planting it, apply the composition scheme first on paper, and then directly transfer it to the site (using a hose, tape, stones or other improvised material). Decide how many plants you need and how they will be placed. Do not forget that each plant has its own biological characteristics and planting patterns, depending on the size of the crown.

Neighborhood of garden jasmine (mock orange) with other plants in the garden

Good neighbors for chubushniki - rose hips (wrinkled gray, apple, cinnamon), as well as lilac, spireas (meadowsweet).

Chubushniki look very beautiful in autumn, when their leaves turn yellow against the background of other plants that have a purple leaf color, for example, scumpies varieties "Royal Purple", hazel varieties "Fuscorubra", maple sycamore Crimson King.

The combination looks great apple trees Nedzvedsky or blood redblooming in May, with Lemoine mockers.

Low-growing varieties such as "Junnat", are especially good in the corners of the ground lawn and in modular gardens.

Dense low hedges (curbs) are formed from varieties "White Bouquet", "Moonlight", "Komsomolets", "Academician Komarov"... These hedges require little or no trimming.

Great hedges come from plants one type of mock-orange: coronal, Caucasian, large-flowered, Schrenck.

Amateur gardeners are always interested in such parameters as the size of the bushes, the timing and duration of flowering plants.

Some varieties of chubushnik (garden jasmine)

Crown mock-orange: blooms in the 5-8th year. Flowering lasts from mid-June to mid-July for at least 20 days. The height of the bush is up to 3 m. The crown is dense, up to 2 m in diameter.

Schrenk's chubushnik: It blooms almost all of June, blooming earlier than many other species. Height 2-3 m. The crown is rather loose, up to 2.5 m in diameter.

Large-flowered chubushnik: Blooms in July for 22-25 days. Height 3 m.

Caucasian chubushnik: Blooms in June for about 15-20 days. Height 3 m.

These plants tolerate shearing well. They can be successfully used in all other types of plantings of beautiful flowering shrubs.

Other compositions with chubushnik (garden jasmine)

Chubushniki are great in tapeworms and groups. In a hedge, plants are planted at a distance of 0.5-1 m, in groups (depending on the size of the bush) - 1.5-2.5 m.

Very colorful groupmade from plants mock orange of common cultivar "Aurea" with yellow leaves, against the background of other shrubs and trees with dark or purple leaves. It can be hazel "Fuscorubra", scumpia Royal Purple or trees with red flowers, like apple trees Nedzvedsky.

The shoots of old chubushnik bushes must be strongly cut, sometimes even "planted on a stump", which leads to the rejuvenation of the plant.

Single compositions from chubushnik (garden jasmine)

For single plantings, plants with a beautiful crown are chosen, for example, grade "Virgin" with erect branches, up to 2 m tall, which blooms in July for more than 20 days.

Or grade Mont Blanc about 2 m high with shoots slightly curved and drooping from the abundance of semi-double flowers, exuding a delicate aroma and blooming throughout July.

Amateur gardeners especially like strawberry-scented chubushniki:

  • Small-leaved (height 1-1.5 m, flowering time June-July)
  • Variety"Airborne assault" 1.4 m high with a compact crown.Its flowers are simple, medium-sized, bowl-shaped, with wide petals, creamy white with creamy yellow stamens. With their original shape, they resemble opened parachutes.

Fragrant varieties of chubushnik (garden jasmine)

Gardeners who create scent gardens prefer chubushniki with a strong smell... Among them - grade "Lemoine"... it chubushnik hybrid ordinary and small-leaved... Deciduous shrub up to 2 m high. The flowers are large, white, collected in 3-7 pieces in one brush. Blooms in July for 15-20 days.

Very popular grade "Belle Etoile". It is a short, deciduous shrub with vertical main shoots. The flowers are large (up to 6 cm in diameter), unusually beautiful, exuding a delicate, delicate aroma, white with pink-violet spots and yellow stamens. It grows on any soil. It also has a wonderful aroma chubushnik ordinary, or coronary.

Smell of jasmine (chubushnik) odorless

For those who are allergic to flower odors, it is better to use odorless chubushnikior with very weak aroma... Among them chubushnik large-flowered up to 3 m. Flowers are snow-white, with wide petals and numerous stamens, collected in clusters of 3, less often 6-9 pieces. Up to 6 cm in diameter.It blooms 8-10 days later chubushnik ordinary... Duration of flowering 20-30 days.

By creating compositions of garden jasmine (mock orange) in your garden, select species and varieties of plants that harmoniously fit into the design of your site, delighting you with their splendor!


Spraying rules and features

In order for the treatment of plums from worms, insects and diseases to be effective, take into account several main points during its implementation:

  1. Observe safety measures. Get to work, only wearing safety glasses, waterproof clothing, a hat, gloves, shoes and a respirator, as required by the instructions attached to the drug.
  2. Only work in dry and calm weather. If it rains immediately after the procedure, spray the plum again.
  3. In early spring, additionally treat the fruit tree with copper sulfate at the cut points. This measure is necessary to protect it from diseases and pests.
  4. Pass all solutions through the filter first. This will prevent the sprayer from clogging up and rendering it unusable.
  5. To dissolve specialized solutions, use only hot water at a temperature of 40 to 50 degrees.

It is better to spray the plum in the morning, but before that, make sure that the water droplets have disappeared on the leaves. Otherwise, the concentration of the active substance will be reduced, therefore, the effect of its action will also be less. You can hold an event in the evening, but after sunset.


Biological features of ordinary horseradish - garden and vegetable garden


Cucumbers, due to their taste in fresh or canned form, are popular, although the nutritional value and the presence of inorganic substances and vitamins in them are small. They promote the assimilation of food, are useful in diseases of the kidneys, liver, increased acidity of gastric juice, rheumatic diseases. Rich in iodine. In some emergencies, to whiten and moisturize the skin, they can provide an irreplaceable service: a gruel of fresh cucumber and egg white applied to your face will help you out. Wash it off with cool water. Cucumbers are useful for patients with diabetes mellitus. They improve metabolism, making it useful for obesity.

Planting cucumbers

Cucumbers are grown by direct sowing or seedling. Plants with direct sowing are more resistant to adverse conditions. For sowing use three-, four-year-old seeds, since both young and old are less fruitful. Do not use fresh (last year's) cucumber seeds for sowing. Good lashes will grow from them with an abundance of sterile male flowers. Seeds of past years (2-3 years) produce lashes with a large number of female flowers, from which fruits are formed.

The seeds are used both purchased in the store and their own. To obtain them, the overgrown tetrahedral (female) fruits are left on the borage until they turn brown. They are then placed in the open air for full dosage before wilting begins. The husked seeds are washed and dried.

Before sowing the seeds are placed in lightly salted water. The ones that have emerged are removed, and those that have fallen to the bottom are washed and dried. Selected seeds (not hybrid varieties) are heated for 3 hours at a temperature of 50-60 ° C, stirring occasionally. For disinfection, they are kept for 20 minutes in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate and then washed well in running water. The acceleration of plant growth and development is facilitated by the treatment of seeds for 12 hours with a mineral solution (10 g of saltpeter and superphosphate, 0.2 g of manganese sulfate per 1 liter of water) or for 3 hours with an ash solution (pour a tablespoon of ash with 0.5 liters of warm water and insist for a day, strain). Then they are washed and dried. It is advisable to pre-soak and harden the seeds.

Sowing cucumbers (no more than six per square meter) only into moist soil when it warms up to 15-20 ° С during the day and not lower than 8 ° С at night. Planting depth - 2 cm. Crops are mulched with peat or humus.

Growing cucumbers

Cucumbers are grown both outdoors and indoors. In all cases, initially, before the establishment of constant warm weather, the beds in the open field should be covered with foil or temporary greenhouses with a height of 80 cm should be arranged, the crate of which is later used as a good trellis for plant lashes.

Both in the open field and in the greenhouse, it is useful to cover the seeds with glass jars or plastic bottles with a cut off the bottom - the seedlings will appear faster and will be protected from hypothermia.

When growing cucumbers in a seedling method, it is impossible not only to deepen the seedlings with cotyledon leaves, but also to sprinkle the stem from the root to these leaves, so as not to stimulate the disease of plants with root rot.

Cucumbers require heated alkaline soils, well fertilized with manure in the fall. They develop well between plantings of tall plants: corn, tomatoes, dill, beans, beans. In open ground, cucumbers are sown at the end of May in rows at a distance of up to 1 m between them and 20 cm between plants. While the plants are developing and do not yet cover the entire area, the spaces between the rows are planted with kohlrabi cabbage and lettuce.

In long-leaved varieties, after the appearance of the fifth true leaf, the tip is pinched, since the female flowers and ovary are located on the lateral shoots, and mainly male flowers are formed on the main stem, which are necessary only for pollination. Their pollen is heavy, so plants are pollinated mainly by insects. The lateral shoot is also pinched, this contributes to the acceleration of fruiting. Still, it is advisable to sow several varieties, since most of them are cross-pollinated.

Breeders have created hybrids and self-pollinating varieties, plants of the female flowering type. But even when growing them, a pollinator should be planted on three or four plants - a plant with a sufficient number of male flowers.

The optimum air temperature for plant growth and development is 25-28 ° C, soil - 20-22 ° C. They grow at an air temperature of at least 15 and not higher than 35 ° C. The temperature regime in the range of 8-10 ° C leads to rapid disease and death of plants.

The use of transparent film mulch accelerates growth and increases productivity by one and a half times. The prepared and filled soil is covered with a light film, its edges are covered with soil. In the film, with a knife at a distance of 30 x 70 cm, cross-shaped cuts of 10 x 10 cm are made, into which three seeds are sown to a depth of 1.5-2 cm, watered and sprinkled with peat or humus. After the emergence of shoots and the formation of the first true leaf, two strongest plants are left in the nest, the third is pinched or cut out, but not pulled out. Further care of the plants is similar to the usual sowing. It includes watering, hilling, loosening row spacings, top dressing, etc.

A high yield of cucumbers cannot be with weak leaf growth. Therefore, even before flowering, the plants must receive a full dose of nitrogen fertilizers. During this period, foliar top dressing with urea (5-10 g per bucket of water) is also carried out, both separately and in combination with the same amount of superphosphate and potassium fertilizers (do not use chlorides).

Top dressing is carried out on poor light soils three to four times per season, on fertile ones - one or two with a solution of mullein (1: 10), chicken droppings (1:20), wood ash (2 glasses per bucket of water). The mullein solution can be strengthened by adding 60 g of garden mixture to 10 liters of water. From mineral fertilizers, superphosphate (10-20 g), ammonium sulfate (15-20 g) are used. During the fruiting period, it is desirable to water cucumbers with potassium permanganate, dusting with wood ash. You can also feed with complex fertilizer.

Weakened plants are treated with a urea solution (a tablespoon in a bucket of water) from below, preferably in the evening. If necessary, foliar feeding is repeated after a decade with Kemira Lux. Plants need boron and magnesium. The borage sprayed with them better preserves the ovary and female flowers, which increases the yield. Boric acid is dissolved in very hot water.

Cucumbers, more than other crops, need a growth stimulant. It should be applied with the appearance of several true leaves, at the beginning of flowering, during mass flowering and another 7 days after the previous treatment.

To determine the need of plants for fertilizers, monitor them. If the upper part of the fruit, where the flower was, is pointed, there is not enough nitrogen. It is necessary to feed the mullein or bird droppings with a solution. If the fruits are narrowed towards the stalk, and the top becomes spherical, potassium and phosphorus must be added.

Nitrogen starvation brightens the borage leaves, the plants weaken, their growth is suspended. It promotes the vegetation of cucumbers, and, consequently, fruiting by spraying plants with colloidal sulfur.

Hilling is carried out after the appearance of the third leaf very carefully so as not to damage the superficially located roots. The first loosening of the row spacings is carried out to a depth of 10-15 cm, the subsequent ones - up to 5 cm, leaving a protective zone from the stem of 5-10 cm.

Cucumbers are susceptible to numerous bacterial and viral diseases. Many of them are the result of violations of agricultural technology.

Often the cucumbers have just bloomed, and the lower leaves have turned yellow (especially in the greenhouse). All leaves gradually lose their color. The plant bears fruit poorly and dies. This is most likely a verticillary disease that occurs when the temperature and humidity of the air are high in the greenhouse and very harmful drip condensation forms on the inside of the film. Heat and humidity should be returned to normal immediately. If the disease is at an early stage, the yellowed leaves should be cut out with a sharp knife and the plants should be treated with onion peel infusion. In other cases, diseased plants are removed and burned. To prevent disease, keep the soil around the base of the stem always dry. Water the beds in the early morning, before the onset of heat, with warm water (20-22 ° C).

Sowing should not be delayed. It is better to plant the most early ripening varieties. It is useful to carry out prophylactic spraying in the phase of two or three true leaves with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid, the second - in a week. Can be sprayed with chalk or slaked lime (100 g per 10 l of water). The resulting alkaline environment on the leaves inhibits the development of the disease.

The massive defeat of borage by downy mildew (peronosporosis) is suppressed by a solution of nitrogen fertilizers (1 g of urea per 1 l of water). The whole plant is treated with this solution, which causes the growth of new lateral shoots, which will bear fruit.

Peronosporosis is also fought with such contact drugs as cuproxat, oxychom, penkats eb, copper oxychloride. Plants are treated with them in the first decade of July. Considering that the drug of contact action affects the disease or insects only with direct contact, the whole plant should be sprayed. Therefore, a second treatment after a decade with a systemic preparation is necessary, which is absorbed and spreads with juices throughout the plant - acrobat, alanide, alufate, etc. Treatment of both strobe and carbendazim is effective. In these cases, the soil around the plants is also cultivated. Previously, the peasants sprayed the borage with a solution of whey (3 liters of whey per 7 liters of water), to which, after stirring, a teaspoon of fashionable vitriol was added. And yet, the main thing in the fight against this disease is prevention, treatment with 1% Bordeaux liquid up to three times with an interval of 7-10 days.

During the fruiting period, the plantings are sprayed alternately with infusion of garlic (200 g per bucket of water) and a solution of potassium permanganate.

Contact drugs are fighting against bacteriosis.

Of the pests, the greatest danger to cucumbers is the spider mite and whitefly. In the fight against them, biological methods are used, plants are treated with decoctions and infusions of pharmacy chamomile, potato tops, dope, tobacco, onion husks, dandelion, horseradish, wood ash.

A soap-copper solution is used against spider mites, aphids and fungal diseases. To prepare it, 200 g of soap and 20 g of dry mustard are dissolved in 9 liters of water. Pour into the resulting mixture in a thin stream, stirring constantly, a solution of copper sulfate (20 g).

It is advisable in the spring to spray plants with two different chemical preparations, which gives better results than repeated treatment in the late summer period.

The green mass of borage is many times greater than the mass of the roots, due to which the plants need frequent watering. In the initial period, the soil is moistened every week, later - after two to three days. Drying of the soil during fruiting is completely undesirable. During this period, when watering, up to 3 liters of water are consumed for each plant. Cool water oppresses plants, stimulates their disease. The same happens when the cucumber lashes lie directly on the ground. Better to let them lie on the green grass. Water the plants along the grooves formed in rows or around the plants. When watering, do not moisten the stems. Loosening is required after watering. Plants must be huddled, which to some extent keeps them from being directly moistened.

To facilitate proper watering, feeding, harvesting fruits, care, in the open field they arrange trellises along which the plants weave. For this purpose, in greenhouses, the lashes are tied up with twine (loosely) at the base with fastening in the upper part of the greenhouse.

In open ground and small-sized film shelters, it is better to grow short-leaved varieties. Zelentsy are relatively small and versatile in purpose.

To improve lighting and air exchange, simplify the care of lashes and collect greens with borage growth beyond the height of a small-sized greenhouse (at this time, frosts are excluded), drive in at the ends and in the intervals between them, every 2 m, stakes with a height of at least 1.5 m, pull a couple of rows of wire over them or nail slats, and your work will be compensated for by an increased fruit yield.

When growing cucumbers in open ground without trellis, the aisles are used not only for plants with a short ripening period, but also for corn, dill, beans, with which cucumbers get along well. They are not friends with potatoes and aromatic herbs, with the exception of dill.

Throughout the growing season, cucumber plants must be formed.When the plant reaches a height of about 30 cm, lateral shoots appear in the leaf axils. They are removed. In the future, when new shoots and fruit ovaries appear, an ovary with one or two leaves is left on them, the rest of the shoot is pinched. A new escape is coming soon. They do the same with him as with the previous one. Fruitful lashes should be cut out without leaving hemp. Such a formation of a bush accelerates fruiting, increases the yield.

During the growing season, it is necessary to remove faded male flowers that are prone to decay and the spread of fungal diseases. Do not forget to remove the yellowed lower leaves as well. In the second half of the growth, it is necessary to cut out excess shoots.

Sometimes zelentsy has an unpleasant bitter taste. This is the result of a violation of agricultural technology. Most often, such a cucumber grows with a lack of moisture, thickening of the planting and weak aeration in this regard, with a lack of nutrition, high or low temperature conditions. Especially the taste of greenery is lost on dry beds in hot weather or when overheated in the greenhouse due to the lack of sufficient ventilation.

Cucumbers are harvested with greens, preventing overripening, as they deplete plants and inhibit the growth of young fruits. You need to collect them in the morning or evening.

It is better to process cucumbers fresh after six hours of exposure in cold water.



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