Goldenrod (lat.Solidago) - a genus of herbaceous perennials of the Asteraceae family, or Astrovye. According to various sources, there are from 80 to 120 species in the genus, but only 20 of them are grown in culture, for example, the goldenrod common in the European part of Russia, the Caucasus, Western Siberia, and further - in Eastern Siberia and the Far East - this the species replaces the Daurian goldenrod.
The Latin name of the genus is translated as "healthy", "strong", and the name of the common goldenrod semantically corresponds to the Russian - "golden rod". Goldenrods are excellent honey plants; many cultivated species are medicinal, tanning and dyeing plants. The most famous species of canadian goldenrod, which became the basis for the breeding of many ornamental garden forms.
Read more about growing goldenrod below.
Goldenrods are glabrous or hairy perennials with erect stems covered with alternate leaves with a solid or toothed edge. Paniculate, racemose or corymbose inflorescences are formed from numerous baskets, the marginal flowers in which are pistillate, of different shades of yellow, sometimes so small that they are not visible from under the ciliated edge of the envelope. The disc consists of tubular bisexual flowers with a yellow corolla. Goldenrod blooms closer to autumn. The fruits of the plant are cylindrical achenes.
Goldenrod seeds lose their germination very quickly. In some species they do not even set, in some they do not have time to mature, although there are species that reproduce well by self-seeding. Therefore, seed propagation of goldenrod is an unreliable process.
If you have set yourself the goal of growing a crop from seeds, use the seedling method.
Sow goldenrod seeds in containers over the surface of the substrate. The crops are covered with glass or foil and germinated in the light at a temperature of 18-22 ˚C. Seedlings appear in 2-3 weeks.
In the photo: Flowering goldenrod
However, it is better to purchase seedlings in the garden pavilion and plant them in the ground in spring or autumn. Seedlings should be branched and healthy, without suspicious bloom, spots and traces of pests on the leaves.
Winter-hardy herb goldenrod grows well both in the sun and in partial shade. It is undemanding to the composition of the soil, but if we talk about preferences, then heavy and wet soils are more suitable for it, therefore, before planting, you do not need to add sand or other leavening agents to the soil. Seedlings are planted at a distance of at least 40 cm from each other: on one square meter, depending on the type and variety of goldenrod, they have from two to five bushes.
The drought-resistant goldenrod does not need regular moistening of the soil, however, during the dry season, powdery mildew can affect the plant in dehydrated soil, and to avoid this, you will have to water the site abundantly in the heat.
Top dressing is applied to the soil twice a season: in spring and autumn. Solutions of mineral complexes are used as fertilizers, and the first top dressing should contain 10-20% nitrogen, and the autumn one - no more than 10%, but it is better to do without this element altogether. In the spring, you can fertilize the soil with wood ash, but it is undesirable to constantly use this fertilizer.
Tall species and varieties of goldenrod often require a garter to a support: in strong winds, they can lie down. Over time, goldenrod grows strongly, so every 3-4 years it is advisable to dig out, divide and plant its bushes. When digging up and replanting a more mature bush, complications can arise, since in most species of goldenrod, the root system goes deeper.
Before wintering, it is advisable to cut the plant at a height of 10-15 cm from the surface of the site, and in the spring, when it grows, you need to cut off the weak and growing shoots inside the bush so that your goldenrod grows strong and blooms profusely in due time.
Powdery mildew, a fungal disease manifested by the formation of a whitish coating on ground organs, can cause the greatest harm to goldenrod. Summer heat, excess nitrogen in the soil and thickening of the planting provoke the development of infection, so plant the bushes at the recommended distance and do not allow them to overgrow too much.
Sometimes goldenrod is affected by rust. Sick bushes should be removed and burned, and healthy ones should be treated with a solution of copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid or other drugs of a similar effect.
In the photo: Growing goldenrod in the garden
The goldenrod is generally resistant to pests, but sometimes its leaves can damage the small insects Corythucha marmorata, and the caterpillars of Argyrotaenia citrana twist the leaf plates of the plant. It is necessary to destroy parasites on a decorative goldenrod with insecticidal preparations, and on a medicinal one - with herbal infusions.
Most often, the following species and varieties of the genus Goldenrod are grown in culture:
This is a North American branched perennial up to 160 cm high with smooth oblong-lanceolate leaves jagged along the edge and pyramidal panicles up to 45 cm long from golden-yellow baskets. Popular variety:
In the photo: Solidago shortii
Also native to North America, where it grows in wet meadows, swamps, roadsides and even bogs. Americans call this perennial coarse-stemmed goldenrod. Its stems are really rough, straight and smooth, up to 2 m high. The rhizome is creeping. Shoots are reddish-brown, leaves are oval or oblong, serrated along the edge, up to 9 cm long and up to 2 cm wide. The plant does not form basal leaves. Small yellow baskets are collected in one-sided brushes, which in turn form drooping paniculate inflorescences up to 60 cm long.
In the photo: Goldenrod rugosa (Solidago rugosa)
Siberian plant up to 1 m high with simple and strong stems, branching only in the inflorescence. In the lower part, the stems are glabrous, and in the upper part, they are covered with short hairs. Basal leaves are located on long petioles, and stem leaves are on short ones. The leaf plates of this species of goldenrod are oblong, lanceolate or ovate, serrate along the edge and pointed towards the apex, almost glabrous, but short-haired along the edges and veins. Numerous small yellow baskets form a narrow panicle or simple raceme.
In the photo: Dahurian goldenrod (Solidago dahurica = Solidago virgaurea var.dahurica)
North American perennial up to 2 m high with oblong-lanceolate bright green leaves and numerous small golden-yellow baskets forming a pyramidal panicle up to 40 cm long. The plant has been cultivated since 1648. A decorative variety of the type is popular:
In the photo: Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis = Solidago canadensis var.canadensis)
A species that grows in the Caucasus, Western Europe, the European part of Russia, Western Siberia and the western regions of Eastern Siberia. It is a plant with straight, simple or branched stems 60 to 200 cm long, whole linear-lanceolate or lanceolate leaves arranged on the stems in a regular order, and complex paniculate, spike-shaped or racemose inflorescences, consisting of many baskets, colored yellow.
In the photo: Common goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea)
The plant is native to North America, where it is found in deserts, prairies, open forests, wet grasslands and roadsides. Americans call this species tall goldenrod. This perennial has pubescent straight stems up to 180 cm high, simple, jagged lanceolate leaves along the edges, streaked with parallel veins. The upper leaves are entire. Lemon-yellow baskets are collected in one-sided racemose inflorescences, which in turn form one-sided panicles up to 35 cm long. This species is an excellent honey plant.
In the photo: Goldenrod highest (Solidago altissima = Solidago canadensis var. Scabra)
Includes all varieties of goldenrod of hybrid origin. The base for breeding hybrids is the Canadian goldenrod. The best cultivars:
Photo: Goldenrod hybrid (Solidago x hybrida)
As a medicine, goldenrod flower is of great importance for both traditional and official medicine. The plant contains organic acids, coumarins, essential oil, phenol carboxylic acids and their derivatives, rutin and quercetin flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids and terpenoids. The composition determines the beneficial properties of goldenrod, namely its strong diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, analgesic, wound healing and antioxidant effect.
In folk medicine, goldenrod is used for indigestion, improper exchange of uric acid in the body, cholelithiasis, scrofula, jaundice and cutaneous tuberculosis. They treat sore throat, stomatitis, gingivitis, bleeding gums, eliminate bad breath.
The property of goldenrod to heal and cleanse wounds is used for suppurating skin inflammations, edema and fractures. Plant-based preparations are indicated for the treatment of oxalate and urate stones, prostatitis, urethritis and even impotence, and gynecologists prescribe goldenrod preparations for candidiasis and cystitis.
Goldenrod root is used to treat skin diseases, burns, overcoming the effects of hepatitis and stomach ulcers, increasing sexual activity, relieving intoxication after food poisoning, treating urological diseases and diarrhea in pets.
In the photo: Goldenrod blooming in the garden
Goldenrod honey has antibacterial properties, it is useful for strengthening the immune system and improving metabolic processes. In the form of compresses, it is used to relieve swelling and skin inflammation. It is an effective assistant in the treatment of angina, sinusitis, rhinitis and even meningitis.
In the pharmacy, you can purchase an extract of goldenrod from undried inflorescences, which is prescribed to restore and support the urinary organs.
Goldenrod and its preparations are contraindicated in pregnant and lactating women, as well as in patients with glomerulonephritis. With great caution, you should use the preparations and honey of goldenrod insulin-dependent and allergic to ragweed. You can not use them with exacerbation of kidney disease and high blood pressure.
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Medicinal Compositae (Asteraceae) Weed Honey plants
Elecampane is most often a long-growing, cold-resistant herb in the form of a medium-sized shrub. Certain types of elecampane are capable of reaching heights of up to 1.5 meters. The buds on the stem are bright yellow in color, resembling small baskets with a brownish color inside. The roots of elecampane are short and thickened, brown in color. The leaf is dense and elongated, with small denticles along the edges; petiole and elliptical forms are also found. The fruit of the plant looks like a cylinder, with a ribbed and hollow achene, which is usually dark in color with a small tuft. The seeds are usually large, without a fly.
The natural form of culture serves as the basis for the development of new decorative varieties. These varieties of Siberian fir have high frost resistance, but are characterized by a moderate height and trunk diameter, which allows them to be used as an element of landscape design.
The most common varieties:
People suffering from stomach ulcers and gastritis need to be careful about eating this southern berry. Dietary fiber, which is contained in figs, can provoke an exacerbation of the disease.
It is also not recommended to abuse these fruits for people prone to obesity, diabetes and kidney stones. It must be remembered that figs are a strong allergen and can cause swelling and skin rashes.
Canadian goldenrod - a perennial herb of the Asteraceae family. The whole plant is slightly pubescent. The root is pivotal, short. The stem is erect, single, branched in the upper part, it can reach a height of 140 cm, the color of the stem can be from light green to dark green. The leaves of the plant are linear-lanceolate, alternate, at the top with long-pointed lower leaves at the edges serrate, short-petiolate, the upper leaves are entire-edged, sessile.
The flowers are small, bright yellow, bisexual. The median flowers are tubular, the marginal flowers are pseudo-ligate. The diameter of the flower baskets is only 3-5 mm. The inflorescences are rather large, it is a pyramidal or conical panicle 4 to 20 cm long. The fruit is a small ribbed achene of a narrow cylindrical shape, with a tuft of white hairs. The flowering time of the Canadian goldenrod is July-August, the plant bears fruit in August-September.
The natural area of distribution of this species is the eastern territory of Canada, the USA, the northern part of Mexico, it is also found throughout the European part of Russia, Ukraine, Moldova. Canadian goldenrod grows mainly on forest edges, clearings, along roads, on the banks of rivers and lakes, in swamps.The plant prefers moderately moist soils, but is also capable of growing in swampy areas and poorly moistened soil.
The medicinal raw material of Canadian goldenrod is the aerial part of the plant - the herb with leaves and inflorescences. The collection of medicinal raw materials is carried out during the flowering period (at the initial stage).
In folk medicine, healing infusions and decoctions of canadian goldenrod are used as a diuretic, anesthetic, wound-healing and antiseptic agent. Taking medications is indicated for diseases such as gout, inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system, enuresis, bronchial asthma, whooping cough, liver disease, rheumatism and skin diseases of various etiologies.
Goldenrod Josephine... Josephine goldenrod is a perennial herb of the Asteraceae family. The plant can reach a height of 70 cm. Unpretentious dense bushes of this type are decorated with small bright yellow flowers. As a remedy, none of the parts of the plant is used in either traditional or folk medicine. Due to their bright color, long flowering period and unpretentiousness to growing conditions, the bushes of Josephine goldenrod are very popular in the formation of flower beds and hedges.
Goldenrod hybrid - a perennial herb of the Asteraceae family. The length of the whole plant is about 80 cm. Flowers - numerous, small, bright yellow, collected in small baskets. The baskets, in turn, form the brushes, and the brushes form lush and vibrant panicles. The flowering period of the goldenrod hybrid is July-September.
Being a frost- and drought-resistant plant, the hybrid goldenrod is unpretentious to the growing condition. Any soil is suitable for its distribution, but the hybrid goldenrod feels best on heavy and wet soils. From a medical point of view, the goldenrod hybrid is of no value. The plant is successfully used by florists when drawing up autumn flower arrangements.
Daurian goldenrod. Herbaceous perennial dahurian goldenrod can grow up to 1 m tall. Straight stems are framed with wedge-shaped leaves. Beautiful baskets are collected in paniculate inflorescences. The flowers have a yellow tint, and the oblong achenes have a whitish crest. Daurian goldenrod often grows in fir-spruce forests or sedge bogs. The phase of mass flowering of the plant begins at the end of August and ends in October.