Agrotechnics for growing eggplants


  • Features of culture
  • Agrotechnics of eggplant
    • Sowing dates for eggplants
    • Eggplant seed treatment
    • Ways of growing eggplant seedlings
    • Eggplant seedlings and care for them

Features of culture

Eggplant. Variety Universal

This culture is very popular among residents of the Krasnodar Territory, other southern regions of Russia, in Ukraine (there eggplants are lovingly called "Blue"). But, for example, in the North-West of Russia, in Siberia, eggplants to this day remain a rare culture, and for many even exotic.

Why is this happening? First, probably because eggplant they are not eaten raw, and the methods of preparing various dishes from them are not known to everyone. Secondly, eggplants are more warm and light-requiring than tomato and peppers, and it is not quite easy to get a noticeable harvest of their fruits even from good seedlings - this plant does not tolerate transplanting well. So is it worth spending time and energy on growing such a capricious and unreliable crop in terms of harvest?


My brother and I think it's worth it. First of all, because eggplant has a special, incomparable taste. Few of those who have tried skillfully prepared meals from eggplant (by the way, it's not so difficult to cook them), will refuse to try them again. The fruits of this plant also have valuable dietary and medicinal properties: their consumption promotes the elimination of cholesterol, dry leaves are used to treat gout, liver diseases, etc.

Most eggplant dishes increase your appetite. It should only be borne in mind that eggplants contain very few acids, and therefore canning them without acetic acid is dangerous due to the possibility of botulism.

Eggplants, like peppers, are perennial plants by nature, but in our climate they are grown as annuals. This plant has a long taproot and adventitious roots up to 50 cm long. The absence of additional roots eliminates the need for hilling plants after planting them in the ground.

Eggplant leaves are large, almost round, tender, often with a purple tint. Through the leaves, due to their size, there is a strong evaporation of moisture, so eggplants do not tolerate drought at all. Eggplant plants are branched, with a height of 30 to 100 cm, depending on the variety. Their stems, especially with a lack of moisture, quickly turn wood from below. That is why they do not tolerate transplanting well and do not form additional roots from the trunk.

Eggplant flowers are bisexual, single, rather large and beautiful, their color can be from blue to purple, and the pistils are bright yellow. This plant, like its relatives - peppers and tomatoes - is self-pollinated. Eggplant fruits are cylindrical, pear-shaped, spherical, egg-shaped. Most often they are purple (but there are varieties with orange, green, emerald, yellow, white and even red fruits). The mass of ripe fruits is from 50 to 500 g, depending on the variety. They are meaty, but not juicy.

Agrotechnics of eggplant

The growing season of eggplants is about 160 days, so seeds for seedlings must be sown no later than March 10 (except for early ripening varieties). Eggplant is a very light-loving plant, it does not tolerate even short shading.

And since this is a short-day plant, during the first 10-15 days after germination, it has enough light for 12-14 hours for early-ripening varieties and 10-12 hours for southern varieties. The lighting should be strong and bright, so you need to grow seedlings only on windowsills with a south orientation. Or you need to provide additional lighting for the eggplant seedlings. The soil for its cultivation, it must be necessarily loose, light with a neutral reaction.

Sowing dates for eggplants

Experts believe that the optimal age of seedlings when planting in the ground should be about 60-70 days. In our area, it is planted in the ground at the end of the first decade of May, which means that the seeds need to be sown to get seedlings around the second half of March. This recommendation is based on the fact that at earlier sowing dates, the seedlings outgrow, and they will take very bad roots.

In more northerly areas where eggplants are grown in greenhouses or greenhouses, the timing of sowing seeds for seedlings must already be calculated taking into account the climate, but I think that even there, in good greenhouses with hot soil, it is quite possible to plant seedlings in the ground in mid-May, which means that in this case you need to sow seeds for seedlings earlier: for early ripening varieties - March 1-15, for later ones - even at the end of February.

With proper cultivation of eggplant seedlings in pots, from which later, when planting in the ground, it can be removed without disturbing the earthen coma, plants even with an ovary will take root normally, and the ovary will not fall off. The advantage of sowing earlier is that 60-70-day seedlings have only buds, and 80-90-day seedlings have flowers and even (in early maturing varieties) an ovary. By sowing earlier, we will extend the growing season of eggplants and speed up the fruiting time, which means we can get a larger harvest.

Eggplant seed treatment

For sowing, it is better to use the seeds of the previous year. Eggplant seeds are warmed up for four hours at a temperature of + 25 ... + 30 ° C and 40 minutes at + 50 ° C, processed with potassium permanganate (hold in a 1% solution for 20 minutes, then rinse with water). Then they are soaked in a solution of biological stimulants - aloe or mummy. It is better to use biologically active water - snow, rain or magnetized water.

You can soak the seeds in an infusion of ash (1 matchbox per 1 liter of water, leave for a day, then strain). For those gardeners who do not have time for such preliminary preparation, the easiest way remains: soak the seeds 2-3 days before sowing in gauze soaked in rain or snow water.

The soil for seedlings must be loose, permeable and fertile. You need to add old rotted manure to it or compost (up to 1/3 of the volume) and mineral fertilizers: for a bucket of earthen mixture 40 g of superphosphate, 20-30 g of potassium salt (or 40-60 g of ash) and 10 g of ammonium nitrate or other nitrogen fertilization... These recommendations must be followed punctually, since eggplants are prone to diseases in a lean and insufficiently permeable soil, they will develop so slowly and poorly that they will not have time to harvest in summer.

As you know, eggplants are very sensitive to black leg disease, therefore, before sowing the seeds, it is imperative to disinfect the ground - pour it with a dark purple solution of potassium permanganate or (less desirable) warm it up with boiling water. Without these precautions, most of your seedlings may not survive to be planted in the ground.



Ways of growing eggplant seedlings

And this is also eggplant

Since eggplants do not tolerate transplanting well, including pick, some gardeners prefer to grow seedlings without picking, and immediately in 10x10 cm pots. In each of them they sow 3 seeds. After the emergence of shoots, the strongest plant is left, the rest are plucked out.

If you are going to carry out a pick, then it is better to sow seeds in boxes no more than 10 cm high to a depth of 1.5 cm every 3 cm from each other (just like tomatoes and peppers). Regardless of whether the seedlings are grown with or without a pick, then each bush must necessarily grow in a separate pot, from which it can be removed before planting in the ground without the slightest disturbance to the root system.

Eggplant seedlings and care for them

Seedlings appear 7-12 days after soaking the seeds. At temperatures below + 20 ° C, eggplants may not sprout at all. After emergence, the seedlings should be immediately placed in the brightest and relatively cool place. The first 3-4 days, it is desirable to maintain the temperature + 17 ... + 20 ° С during the day and up to + 10 ° С at night. Then the daytime temperature can be gradually increased to + 25 ... + 27 ° С, and the night temperature - up to + 15 ... + 18 ° С. This regulation is done by simply moving the seedling box away from the outside window frame. After the appearance of the first true leaf, reject small, flawed plants - they still will not give a normal harvest.

The pick is carried out in the phase of the first true sheet. It must be carried out carefully, trying not to wrinkle or damage the spine. After the dive, the seedling must be deepened to the cotyledons, and at the same time it is important to ensure that the root does not bend. When growing seedlings in pots without picking, you do not need to fill them with soil to the very top, so that there is room for adding soil to the cotyledon leaves. Sprinkle the soil gradually - within two to three weeks after the appearance of a real leaf.

The dived seedlings need to be shaded for several days, and then gradually accustom them to the sun, covering the window glass with thin paper or newspaper for the time of sunshine (first in two layers, then in one). It is known that picking delays the development of any seedlings, especially eggplant. Therefore, if you are going to carry out a pick, sow the seeds, preferably ten days earlier. At the same time, some vegetable growers are sure that, although the dived seedlings lag behind a little at the beginning of their development, then they grow more lateral roots, and they become stronger.

Watering seedlings

Purple head eggplant

Eggplant is a rather capricious culture. They do not tolerate overdrying of the land in the beds, or stagnant water. Water them only with warm water, without waiting for the leaves to wither. But do not water the plantings if the soil is still wet. Try to prevent water from getting on the leaves when watering, because this can lead to fungal diseases.

IN end of April or in May, when the stems begin to stiffen from below, they sometimes crack at the surface of the soil. At the same time, the seedlings begin to lie down, although at first they do not wither and have a completely healthy appearance. In this case, sprinkle the seedling with disinfected soil 3-4 cm, water it and tie it to a thin peg. Usually these measures are enough, the barrel will straighten.

Before planting eggplants in open ground, you need to gradually harden them, taking them out into the air. But at the same time, the seedlings can be damaged and lie down from gusts of wind. Therefore, it is advisable to tie each seedling to a peg. And be sure to water abundantly.

Since eggplants are very sensitive to cold, they can be left in the air overnight only if the outside temperature is not lower than + 7 ... + 8 ° С. The results of hardening can be seen already on the third or fourth day: the seedlings will become larger, the stems and leaves will acquire a bluish or purple hue, characteristic of healthy plants.

Top dressing of seedlings

During the period of growing seedlings, it is recommended to feed the plants twice. The first time 15 days after the dive: for 10 liters of water, 0.5-0.7 g of ammonium nitrate, 1.5-2 g of superphosphate, 1-1.5 g of potassium salt. This amount of solution is usually enough to feed 10 plants. After 10 days, a second feeding is carried out: dilute 50 g of bird droppings in 1 liter of water, leave for 5 days, then dilute this volume 10 times. It is advisable to combine top dressing with irrigation with warm water (+ 25 ° C). A week before planting seedlings in the ground, it is useful to carry out foliar feeding of plants with microelements: 0.5 g of potassium permanganate, 0.3 g of copper sulfate, 0.3 g of boric acid per 1 liter of water. One liter of this solution can be sprayed over the leaves of nearly a hundred plants.

Special techniques for growing seedlings. You can pinch the growing point in some plants after the fifth true leaf. After that, the seedlings will stop growing for three weeks, but development will continue - lateral buds will appear. As a result, the seedlings will become much healthier and smaller in size. Such plants will be more convenient to transport, they are easier to take root in the ground. And since the fruits of eggplants just grow on lateral shoots, such a pinching in many varieties can give a significant increase in yield. Sometimes it is advised to pinch after planting in the ground, but in this case there may not be enough time for the development of lateral shoots.

Planting eggplant seedlings in the ground

The timing of planting eggplant plants in a permanent place in a garden bed or in a greenhouse is approximately the same as for seedlings of tomatoes and peppers. It is important to take into account the local climatic conditions here. In the open field, you first need to select and prepare a place.

It is desirable that it be elevated and sunny, and the soil needs loose and fertile, on which any nightshade crops - potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, physalis - have not grown for several years before. On the side from which the wind blows more often, the future bed must be protected so that it does not break young plants. In greenhouses, you also need to carefully prepare the beds.

And when planting seedlings, you need to add both in the open ground and in the greenhouse, in addition, for each square meter, 1-2 buckets of humus or compost, 1 liter of wood ash and mineral fertilizers - 60-70 g of nitrophosphate. When planting seedlings, the distance between the plants is left at 30-40 cm, and between the rows should be 50-60 cm.

Before planting in the ground, the seedlings need to be watered well, then the seedlings will more easily withstand the transplant, and it will be more convenient to remove it from the pots, there will be no damage to the roots. Eggplant plants with a lump of earth are placed in the ground vertically, a little deeper than they grew in pots. After planting, watered with warm water. Like any other seedlings, eggplant seedlings are best planted in cloudy weather or in the evening, when they do not have to immediately get under the bright and hot rays of the sun. During plant survival, it is advisable to shade them slightly with a covering material or film for several days.

Eggplant care

After planting in a permanent place, the plants need the same care as other thermophilic crops. It consists in regular watering (8-10 times per summer: 5-6 l / m², in greenhouses - 1-2 times a week, depending on the weather), in fertilizing, loosening the soil and fighting pests and diseases - verticillium wilting, gray rot spider mite, whitefly, in the middle lane and south of the plant damages Colorado beetle.

The soil should not be allowed to dry out, because it harms the plants, since their root system is located in the upper layer of the soil. Water the eggplant abundantly, but only with warm water. Then carefully loosen the soil after watering to a shallow depth of 3-5 cm. Improper watering greatly affects the growth of plants and the future harvest. Eggplants are very sensitive to high humidity. An excess of moisture leads to the development of fungal diseases, and also makes pollination difficult. It is better to water only at the root so that the water does not get on the leaves and flowers. There is no need to sprinkle and huddle eggplants.

During the growing season, eggplants are fed after 10-15 days with a solution of mullein fermented for 2-3 days in a ratio (1: 5), wood ash (200 g per 10 l of water) or chicken droppings in a ratio (1:15). If there is no organic fertilizer, complete mineral fertilizer can be used. During the period of mass flowering, it is advisable to make two foliar dressings with microelements (2 tablets per 10 liters of water) or an ash daily infusion (2 glasses of ash per bucket of water).

To enhance the branching of eggplants, the tops of the stems are pinched at a height of 25-30 cm, if you have not done this yet on the seedlings after the appearance of the fifth leaf. When properly formed, plants should have 3-4 lateral shoots with five to six evenly spaced fruits.

Harvesting

Eggplants are removed in a state of technical ripeness 26-40 days after flowering, depending on the variety. It is very important not to miss these deadlines, since unharvested ripe fruits inhibit the growth of the following. If the harvest is harvested ahead of time, then the young fruits will begin to wither.

In addition, they are tasteless, as they contain a lot of acid and tannins. They cannot be ripened like tomatoes. And overripe fruits are also not suitable for food - their pulp becomes rough and inedible. Therefore, the fruits are harvested semi-ripe - in technical ripeness, which is determined by the strong shine and intense color of the fruit. It depends on the variety, most often it is violet-black, but it is also white, and yellow, and green. At this time, eggplant seeds are small, and the flesh is tender.

The size of the fruit during harvesting also depends on the variety. In varieties with an elongated shape of the fruit, its length is at least 10 cm, in varieties with fruits of a different shape, they are guided by their diameter, it should be at least 5 cm.To reduce the tendency to wilt, the fruits are cut with a pruner together with a cup and a stalk. Eggplant fruits can be stored in the refrigerator for up to two weeks. The yield of this crop in the middle lane is 3-5 kg ​​/ m².

Diseases and pests of eggplant

When growing eggplants, gardeners may encounter diseases and pests - "black leg", wilting, mites, aphids, slugs and the Colorado potato beetle.

Preventive measures against diseases consist in spraying seedlings and plants in the ground with Bordeaux liquid (10-15 days after planting). When the disease "black leg" appears, it is necessary to stop watering and dry the soil, then loosen it and sprinkle it with wood ash. To get rid of this disease will help the drug "Hom", diluted in a proportion of 4 g of the drug per 1 liter of water (it will be enough for 10 square meters).

It is necessary to observe seedlings and adult plants, especially in greenhouses - are there aphids and mites? When aphids appear, it can be dealt with purely mechanically, removing it from the plants with tweezers. Pay particular attention to the underside of the sheet. If there are many pests, special spraying can be applied against them. A good effect is given by spraying with celandine infusion: pour a bucket of fresh celandine herb with water, leave for a week, then dilute the infusion with water three times. Infusion of garlic is also used: insist 200 g of garlic shooters in 3 liters of water, then dilute the infusion with three buckets of water. A good result is obtained by wetting the leaves with soapy foam.

Read the next part. Interesting varieties of eggplant →

Anyone who wants to have high-yielding various varieties of eggplant, visit our online store http://www.semenabrizhan.ru/shop, +7 (861) 646-28-76, Valery Ivanovich Brizhan, (from 16:00 to 18:00 and from 08:00 to 09:00 Moscow time)

Valery Brizhan, experienced gardener
Photo by the author


When growing seedlings, it should be remembered that eggplants have a very sensitive root system that does not recover well after damage. Therefore, large pots are used for seedlings, their length, depth and width should not be less than 8 cm. For these purposes, you can use ready-made cubes of peat humus. Seedlings are regularly watered and fed with fertilizers. After the appearance of the first leaf on it and before the formation of the fourth, it is covered with a darkening material in the evening or at night.

Seedlings can be transferred to a greenhouse when 8-9 leaves have developed on it, and the plant reaches 20 cm in height. Its age will be approximately 75 days, in warmer regions, the period may be reduced by 1-2 weeks. In order to preserve the root system, eggplant seedlings should be moved along with a clod of earth.


Preparation for sowing eggplant

Since the growing season of eggplants is 85-140 days, and the climate conditions in most areas cannot please summer residents with such a warm and long summer, this crop is best grown by seedlings.

For sowing, it is necessary to prepare loose soil from:

1/2 part sand or aged sawdust.

It is categorically impossible to use for eggplant seedlings:

fresh organic matter that can damage the root system

fresh sawdust, which increases the level of acidity, they must be kept until darkening

untreated potassium permanganate soil and humus, which may contain pest larvae and causative agents of some diseases.


Fighting eggplant diseases

Observing all the features of growing a plant, you can protect the eggplant from pests and reduce the risk of disease. It is not always possible to achieve a good eggplant harvest, even if the rules for fertilization, watering and planting were followed exactly.

It's important to know! In cold and rainy periods, the risk of the appearance and development of diseases of a fungal, viral and infectious nature in a plant increases.

With high air humidity, the likelihood of developing a disease such as black spot increases. The disease is bacterial in nature and manifests itself as black spots on the stalk, stem, or along the veins on the leaf. The disease develops gradually and spots of a dark glossy shade appear on the fruits.

The viral mosaic is found in plants grown in the southern regions. It manifests itself in the form of dark green and light green spots, which are clearly visible on the tip of the shoots. As the disease progresses, the leaves become deformed and turn yellow, and the number of flowers and ovaries decreases.

Areas of brown dead tissue are a sign of the development of viral internal necrosis. The development of this disease significantly reduces the eggplant yield.

As preventive measures that help protect the plant from diseases, they use:

  • Collecting seeds from healthy plants
  • Selection and implementation of the seed disinfection procedure
  • Disinfection of the soil area on which the plant will be planted
  • Compliance with the rules of crop rotation
  • Selection of strong seedlings
  • Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology
  • Destruction of plant residues on the site.

Plants damaged by the disease should be treated with precautions, it is recommended to decontaminate equipment and use chemical and biological preparations, as well as foliar fertilization.

The lack of any substances in the soil composition can have an adverse effect on the plant.

Lack of nitrogen leads to changes in the appearance of leaves and fruits. Shoots change shape and deform, and then fall off. A large amount of nitrogen in the soil leads to the active growth of leaves and bushes, the growth and development of fruits stops. This element accumulates in the shoots in the form of nitrates, which are dangerous to humans.

Lack of phosphorus in the soil leads to leaf fall and the appearance of a purple hue in them. Lack of potassium leads to yellowing of the plant, drying out of the leaves and the appearance of spots on the fruits. During dry periods and in areas with high soil oxidation, eggplant especially needs this element.

  • The yellowing of plants and their rapid wilting is associated with a lack of magnesium and manganese.
  • The lack of boron and calcium also noticeably affects the development of the plant, the eggplant looks depressed.


Eggplant

The yield and quality of the fruit depends on the correctness of pinching of any varieties of eggplant in the greenhouse. This is an important part of crop maintenance.

What is the difficulty in the process of choosing a variety and growing eggplants in the Urals is in the climatic features of the region.

Why eggplants can not be tied? There are many reasons, since the vegetable is very capricious, picky about the level of moisture in the soil rich in organic matter.

If you choose the optimal varieties and types of eggplant for a specific area, then you can achieve high yields not only in a greenhouse.

Germinating the seeds of various varieties of eggplant is of great importance for the future harvest. How to independently increase the germination of a crop?

Regardless of whether a vegetable is growing in a greenhouse or in an open area, you need to know how you can feed the eggplants, since they need fertilizers.

You need to know how to properly form eggplants in a greenhouse, as this is one of the most important stages in growing a finicky garden crop.

When choosing varieties of eggplant for growing in the open field, one should take into account not only personal preferences, but also the climatic characteristics of the region.

White eggplants have a mushroom flavor and are very popular. They have a snow-white pulp, in which there is practically no bitterness.

How to plant and grow eggplants in a greenhouse? First of all, it is necessary to find out what conditions will have a beneficial effect on the development of culture.

The fruits of the Vera variety eggplant are harvested 110 days after germination. The variety is cold-resistant, and heat-loving eggplants rarely boast of this.

In Europe, eggplants began to be cultivated in the 19th century. They are gentle, capricious, heat-loving, often suffer from pest attacks and weather changes, and novice vegetable growers can lose their harvest simply from ignorance of the nuances of growing. We will tell you about where you can grow eggplants in the open field and what varieties to choose for this, what is the difference between agricultural technology in a greenhouse and how best to equip it. From the materials of our section, you will learn how to prepare seeds for sowing, how to grow healthy seedlings, at what time it is better to transplant it to the garden, how to care for it in order to get an excellent harvest.


Features of growing indoors

Taking into account the long growing season of the culture, in order to obtain a bountiful harvest, you should know the main points of its cultivation in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, film. With the observance of the main techniques of agricultural technology, eggplants have time to form and fully ripen.

Lighting and air temperature

For normal growth and development of crops and fruits, a large amount of sunlight is needed. If there is not enough of it in the room, additional lighting devices are installed in the form of fluorescent lamps. A lack of light adversely affects plantings, depressing them. The fruits are small and inconspicuous.

Before the sprouts appear, the air temperature should be at least 12-16 degrees, and in the future it is increased to 23-25 ​​degrees.

Top dressing

To saturate the eggplant with nutritive components, mineral universal compositions are introduced twice a season. The first procedure is performed with a mixture of phosphorus fertilizer (40 g) and potassium fertilizer (15 g), diluted in 10 liters of water. The optimal time for its implementation is 2-3 weeks after transplanting the seedlings to a permanent place. The second treatment is done 14 days after the first.

Irrigation and loosening of soil

Watering is organized once every 3 days. When growing in greenhouses, it is important to monitor the condition of the soil; dry crust should not be allowed to form on the surface. After each moistening of the soil, it is recommended to loosen the soil and remove weeds. Such a simple agricultural technique allows you to increase the supply of oxygen to the planting roots.

Molding

This manipulation consists in removing the formed new buds on the bush and pinching the shoot. It is best to mold the plant into 2 stems. After all actions, only 2 leaves should remain on the shoot. All buds break off, stepchildren who have reached a length of 8 cm are also removed. The lower old leaves are also subject to cutting in order to exclude the loss of nutrients from the plant.

Pest control

To protect eggplant plantings from the Colorado potato beetle, appropriate insecticides are used. If you do not carry out regular treatments, a harmful insect can destroy planted young seedlings in a short time. In addition to the Colorado potato beetle, ticks and small aphids pose a danger to bushes. These parasites like to dwell on the underside of the leaves. Of the folk remedies that allow you to get rid of them, an infusion of celandine is effective. It is prepared at the rate of 0.5 kg of crushed phyto-raw materials and 10 liters of water and watered plantings.


Eggplant care in the greenhouse

It is better to grow eggplants in a greenhouse separately from other crops or arrange them so that it is possible to create the necessary temperature conditions and ensure sufficient soil and air moisture, additional lighting on cloudy days.

Air temperature and humidity mode

For eggplants, the optimum is the average daily air temperature in the range of + 24 ... + 28 ° С. Varieties resistant to temperature changes develop well and bear fruit at a temperature of + 18 ... + 24 ° C. A higher temperature causes shedding of flowers and a decrease in setting, while a lower temperature (especially a decrease to + 13 ... + 15 ° C) stops plant growth. Reduce the temperature by airing or watering the paths with cold water, shading the sunny side.

The optimum air humidity ranges from 60-70%. During the fruiting period, it is advisable to reduce the air humidity to 60% in order to protect the overgrown bushes from fungal diseases that require high humidity.

Watering

Remember! Plants are watered only at the root to keep the leaves dry. If water gets on the leaves, it will damage them.

Plants need to adapt to new conditions, so the first watering is carried out no earlier than after 4-5 days.

Watering is carried out only with warm (+ 25 ° C) water, otherwise the beginning of flowering is delayed up to 10 days.

Lack of water (even short-term) causes the ovaries to fall off and plant growth to stop. The moisture content of the soil, especially during the fruiting period, should be maintained at a level of 75-80%. During fruiting, watering is carried out every 3-4 days.

Watering is carried out in the morning, then the soil is necessarily mulched, and the room is ventilated so that a greenhouse fog with high humidity and drops does not form. Ventilation should be free of drafts. The irrigation rate depends on the condition of the soil. Water should wet the top (20-25 cm) soil layer.

The next watering is prescribed when the soil dries up in the upper 3-5 cm layer (phalanx of the index finger) or once a week (before the beginning of fruiting). With high temperatures and bright sunny days outside the greenhouse, the frequency of indoor watering is increased.

Top dressing

Eggplants spend a lot of nutrients on the formation of fruits, therefore feeding is mandatory, and they are carried out, depending on the fertility of the soil, 3-5 times per season.

Usually feeding is "timed" to the post-irrigation period (one day after watering). The first feeding is carried out after 2 weeks, when the established root system will be able to fully supply the plants with the necessary nutrients. It is better to carry out it with a water-soluble complete fertilizer - "Solution", "Kemira" in a dose of 30-40 g / 10 l of water.

In the second feeding (overgrowth of plants), you can prepare an extract from organic fertilizers. For a bucket of water 2-3 kg of cow dung or bird droppings, insist 3-4 days. Dilute the mother liquor in 10-15 liters of water and pour 1.0-1.5 liters under each bush. You can add a handful of wood ash under the bush (it contains a lot of trace elements).

In the next top dressing (beginning of flowering), plants need nitrogen-phosphorus fertilization. You can prepare a mixture of ammonium nitrate and superphosphate in a 2: 1 ratio and add a teaspoon with top or 45-50 g of the mixture per square meter under the bush. m. In order not to bother with the preparation of the mixture, you can use diammophos or nitrophos for feeding.

In the same period, to improve flowering, foliar dressing with boric acid can be carried out at the rate of 1 g of acid per 5 liters of hot water. Cool the solution and sprinkle on the plants.

With the onset of fruiting, plants need phosphorus-potassium supplements (a mixture of potassium nitrate and superphosphate). The mixture can be replaced with top dressing with nitrophos, with a norm of 45-50 g / sq. m.If fruiting is prolonged, then feeding with a nitrophobic or nitrogen-phosphorus mixture is repeated. In addition, wood ash is added.

Huge plants require enhanced nutrition, so every 2-3 weeks foliar feeding is also carried out (after watering) with solutions of trace elements, infusions of fermented green herbs.

Currently, the fertilizer market offers new forms and combinations of nutrients in complex complex fertilizers. Using these forms for fertilizing crops, remember that in order for the crop to grow, and not the vegetative mass, nitrogen fertilizers should not prevail in fertilizers when feeding.

Loosening

Loosening when caring for eggplants does a double job: they destroy weeds and soil crust and increase oxygen access to the roots. The soil is loosened to a depth of 4-5 cm so as not to damage the roots close to the soil surface.

It is better to use ridge loosening or hilling (raking finely loosened soil to the plants). The soil is loosened, depending on the moisture level of its upper layer, usually 2-3 days after watering.

Garter and pinching of plants

For eggplants in greenhouse conditions, it is more practical to grow undersized varieties and hybrids. They do not require a garter, which often breaks fragile stems. It is better to leave 2-3 strong shoots on the main stem.

Eggplant pickling is optional. There is no need to injure plants once again. If necessary, remove the lower infertile stepchildren and lateral shoots (up to the first bud), which proliferate and impede the formation of the first flowers.

Towards the end of the season, the emerging flowers and ovaries are removed from the upper branches and the tops of the shoots are pinched. In this case, nutrients will be directed to increase the mass of already growing fruits. It is best to leave 5-7 ovaries on one bush. The fruits will be larger.

With a weak fruit set, artificial pollination is used. The pollen of an expanding flower is transferred with a soft brush from a yellow anther to the stigma of the pistil of another flower. If you are not sure of success, then it is more practical to shake the plants slightly in the morning. Eggplant pollen is heavy and spreads no more than 1 m, so this technique will contribute to a more complete pollination.

Toward the end of the season, the emerging flowers and ovaries are removed from the upper branches of the eggplant and the tops of the shoots are pinched. © Greenspec

Protection from pests and diseases

Correct and complete preparation of the greenhouse for wintering, its disinfection will drastically reduce the level of plant damage by diseases and pests.

On eggplants, the fight against diseases and pests is difficult. It is a reusable crop that takes a long time. It is forbidden to use chemical means of protection on such crops.

It is possible to really reduce the level of damage to plants by diseases and pests with careful fulfillment of the requirements of agricultural technology and using biological agents during the growing season. Currently, biological preparations are entering the market of protective products that protect plants well from gluttonous pests and rapidly spreading diseases and at the same time do not have a negative effect on human and animal health.

The most common eggplant diseases are late blight, anthracnose, rot, and verticillary wilting. From biological products during the growing season on the leaf, you can process eggplants in 10-12-15 days the whole season with biological products in tank mixtures using Planriz, Glyokladin, Gamair, Fitosporin, Alirin-B, Baktofit and etc.

Using biological products, it is necessary to follow the requirements of the recommendations. Otherwise, the positive effect may not appear.

The main pests of eggplant in the greenhouse - whitefly, aphids and ants, thrips, spider mites - are also destroyed by biological products. The most common are "Bitoxibacillin", "Fitoverm", "Lepidotsid", "Basamil" and others. "Aktofit" can be used for plant treatments even during harvesting, and "Mycoafidin", "Aversectin-S", "Avertin-N »Eggplant is more effective in the early stages of development.


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