Pear in nature and in the garden


Pear is one of the most important fruit species in the central and southern regions. There are also winter-hardy varieties for amateur gardening in central Russia, the North-West region, the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. In order for the pear to produce good yields of tasty fruits, it is very important to properly care for it throughout the season.

Where and how the pear grows in the garden and in the wild

Pear is a vigorous deciduous tree up to 8–15 m high with a powerful taproot system that goes deep into the soil. It blooms in spring, April-May. The fruits ripen from July to October, depending on the variety and region.

The southern varieties of pears originate from the wild forest pear, and the more winter-hardy northern varieties - from the crossing of the forest pear and southern varieties with the wild Ussuri pear.

All wild pears (forest, Ussuri, loch-leaved, willow) in the zone of their natural growth and regions similar in climate can be used as rootstocks for cultivated varieties.

Table: features of different types of wild pears

Photo gallery: wild pear species

Fruiting dates of cultivated and wild pears

The timing of the beginning of pear fruiting:

  • wild pears and seedlings of cultivated varieties - 9–15 years after planting;
  • grafted onto seed stock - after 5–10 years;
  • grafted onto a dwarf rootstock - after 2–4 years.

A pear grows and bears fruit for 50–100 years on a seed stock, and no more than 20–40 years on a dwarf stock.

In my garden, a huge wild pear, almost six meters in height, planted by my grandfather in the 1970s and successfully survived the extreme winter of 1978 with forty-degree frosts, still grows and bears fruit every year. In the early 90s, the grandfather planted several cultivars on the seedlings from her seeds. At first, the grafts developed poorly due to the terrible thickening in that corner of the garden. When in the early 2000s I eliminated the extra thickets, leaving only pears there, the trees immediately gave a powerful growth and bloomed in 1-2 years.

Features of pear grafting, depending on the region

A dwarf pear is a common cultivar tree grafted onto a special rootstock - a vegetatively propagated form of quince. It grows no higher than 3-4 m.

Pear on quince can only grow in southern regions with warm winters. It blooms there 2-3 years after planting. In central Russia, quince freezes out.

Pear on quince blooms 2-3 years after planting

Novice gardeners often confuse real quince with more frost-resistant Japanese quince (chaenomeles), but chaenomeles is not suitable for pear grafting.

Due to the lack of zoned winter-hardy dwarf rootstocks, gardeners of the Moscow region, the Leningrad region, the Urals and Siberia often experiment by grafting a pear on ordinary red mountain ash, irga and chokeberry (chokeberry). For experienced professionals, these vaccinations are often successful, albeit not very durable. On irga and chokeberry, the pear grows low due to poor compatibility with the stock, but such grafts must be regularly updated due to the rapid death of the grafted branches.

Photo gallery: possible rootstocks for pears

Pear propagation

The pear propagates by seeds and vegetatively. During seed propagation, varietal characteristics are not preserved, therefore it is used only for growing rootstocks and for breeding purposes to create new varieties.

Propagation of pears by seeds

Procedure for seed propagation of pears:

  1. Collect fully ripe fallen pears under the trees (in September-October).
  2. Remove the seeds from them, selecting the largest, undamaged, well-ripened (dark brown or black).
  3. In the second half of October, sow seeds on a prepared bed to a depth of 2-3 cm.
  4. In spring, thin out the seedlings, leaving at least 15 cm between seedlings.

    Wild pear seeds are well suited for growing rootstocks

Propagation of pears by cuttings

Lignified pear cuttings do not root at all, and green ones with great difficulty and only with the use of special root formation stimulants. Rooted cuttings can overwinter in the open field only in the subtropical zone, in other regions they are rooted in boxes and removed to a ventilated basement for the winter.

Propagation of pears by green cuttings

The procedure for propagating pears with green cuttings:

  1. Prepare boxes 35 cm deep. Place in them a 20 cm layer of loose garden soil, then 10 cm of peat in half with sand and on top of 2 cm of clean river sand.
  2. Cut off young shoots of the current year when they begin to slightly lignify in their lower part.

    Shoots of the current year are used for cuttings.

  3. Cut the cuttings from the bottom and middle of these shoots. Green herbaceous tops do not take root.

    Cuttings are cut from the bottom and middle of the shoots

  4. Treat the lower cuts of the cuttings with a rooting stimulator according to the instructions for the preparation.
  5. Slightly bury the lower part of the cuttings into the top layer of sand in the box. Layout - 7 cm between rows, 5 cm between cuttings in a row.

    Pear cuttings are rooted in boxes

  6. Cover the cuttings with polyethylene, without touching the cuttings, put in a bright place without direct sunlight and spray regularly.
  7. When the cuttings take root, the cuttings begin to air, and then the film is removed completely.

After rooting, the cuttings are gradually accustomed to open air.

Propagation of pears by air layers

Air layering is a method of rooting branches directly onto a tree. The main problem is overwintering: the roots formed over the summer in most cases die during winter frosts.

Procedure:

  1. Slightly scratch the young last year's branch selected for rooting with a knife in the place of the planned rooting.
  2. Tie a black plastic bag below the scratches.
  3. Fill it with peat or coconut substrate, sprinkle with water and tie tightly above the scratches on the branch.
  4. After a few months, when roots are formed, cut off the rooted branch and transplant it into a nursery for rearing.

    After the appearance of the roots, the area with them is cut from the tree

Pear grafting

The most reliable method for obtaining pear seedlings is grafting. There are two main ways:

  • summer budding - grafting of the bud (eye) of the scion into the T-shaped incision of the rootstock bark;

    Budding is an inoculation with an eye (kidney)

  • spring copulation - grafting of a scion cut onto a cut stock.

    Copulation is called grafting

All vaccinations are secured by wrapping with elastic tape. The next year, the harness is loosened.

Laying a pear garden

For planting a pear garden, places well-lit by the sun on gentle slopes are chosen. For northern gardening (Leningrad region, Moscow region, Ural, Siberia), only the slopes of the southern, southeastern and southwestern directions are suitable. In the south - any, except for the steep northern ones.

Southern pears need soil acidity in the range of 6.0-7.5. Northern varieties grafted onto the Ussuri pear or created with its participation prefer acidity in the range of 5.5–6.5.

Groundwater problem

For a pear on a vigorous seed stock, groundwater should be no closer than 1.5–2 m from the soil surface; for a weakly growing pear on a quince, 1 m is enough.

Planting seedlings on hills, which was widely promoted in the 80s and 90s, did not justify itself in the long term, such trees are very short-lived. The roots still grew to underground water, because of which the tree died, or it froze out in a frosty winter with little snow.

Most of the recommendations for drainage found in the specialized literature are focused on large industrial horticultural farms. The possibilities of an individual amateur gardener and even an individual horticultural cooperative are very limited in this regard. Here are some of the more typical examples:

  • The site is directly on the shore of a large reservoir (river or lake), in spring it is partially flooded with water. It is incorrigible. In the flooded part, trees will never grow.

    A flooded area on the shore of a reservoir is an unavoidable problem

  • The site is in a lower relief (ravine, deep valley between the hills), in the spring there is water on the site. If this is a narrow and deep ravine, it is useless to do something: in such places it is too dark, and in winter the trees will inevitably freeze due to stagnant cold air. If it is a wide valley with a noticeable slope to the south, southeast or southwest, then the conditions for trees are more favorable. In this case, in the deepest part of it, you need to dig a longitudinal ditch for the drainage of spring waters and well strengthen its bottom and walls.

    A site in the valley can be drained by digging a drainage ditch

  • A plot in a suburban village, along the edge of which there is a ready-made public drainage ditch, but the ground there is still damp. If the spring water level in the ditch is noticeably below the surface of the soil, the situation can be relatively easily corrected by installing a drainage system. If the water in the common ditch is flush with the surface of the site, this is incorrigible.

    The laying of drainage pipes on the site is effective in the presence of a public drainage ditch

Drainage system

The procedure for arranging the drainage system:

  1. In the direction of the drainage ditch, several trenches with a depth of 1–2 m should be dug along the site with a slight slope towards the ditch. The bottom of the trenches in the lowest part of them should be higher than the maximum water level in the ditch. The distance between the trenches is from 3 to 10 m.
  2. A layer of crushed stone or coarse gravel is poured into the trenches and special ceramic or concrete drainage pipes with numerous holes are laid. At the joints, their edges are adjusted and covered from above with pieces of tiles.

    Drainage pipes are laid in ditches over a layer of crushed stone and gravel

  3. From above, the pipes are covered with a layer of gravel and then earth.

    From above, drainage ditches with laid pipes are covered first with gravel, then with earth

Planting seedlings

In the conditions of the North-West, central and northern regions of the middle zone, in the Urals and Siberia, a pear is planted only in spring, from late April to late May. In the south, this is usually done in the fall, in October. In the Chernozem region, spring or autumn planting is possible.

The distance between vigorous pear trees should be from 5–6 m in the north and up to 7–8 m in the south. Dwarf varieties on a quince stock are planted according to a 3x2 m scheme with the obligatory installation of supports.

Bonsai requires the installation of supports

The depth of planting holes for dwarf seedlings is 50-60 cm, for vigorous plants - up to 1 m. The diameter of planting holes is 80-100 cm.

The depth of the planting pit for dwarf seedlings should be 50-60 cm

Landing procedure:

  1. Drive in a landing stake in the center of the pit.
  2. Pour a mound of earth mixed with a bucket of humus at the bottom.
  3. Place the seedling on a mound, spreading the roots.
  4. Tie the seedling to the stake so that the root collar is fixed at the level of the soil surface.
  5. Carefully cover the hole with earth.

It is better to water during planting in 2 steps: 1 bucket of water into the hole before planting and another bucket of water from a watering can with a splitter immediately after planting to compact the earth around the roots.

When planting, the seedling must be watered

Video: planting a pear

How to care for a pear

Care for a pear garden during the season is approximately the same in all regions of its cultivation.

Shaping and pruning pears

Without forming, the pear grows very strongly in height, many branches depart from the trunk at an acute angle and in the future can break off under the weight of a bountiful harvest.

An unformed pear grows very tall, and many branches branch off from the trunk at a dangerous sharp angle

To avoid the risk of branches breaking off, young trees are formed by bending their branches to an almost horizontal position and securing them with braces. Such branches begin to bear fruit earlier.

With the timely bending of the branches of young trees, additional formative pruning is usually not required. Sanitary pruning, which involves removing dried or broken branches, is useful for pears of all ages. It is carried out from spring to the end of summer, and in the south - and in autumn. All large cuts after pruning must be treated with garden varnish.

Video: how to properly trim a pear

Pear feeding

The trees are fed in the spring, evenly distributing fertilizers over the entire area of ​​the trunk circles and embedded in the soil when digging. Approximate fertilizer rate per 1 m2:

  • 12-18 kg of humus;
  • 20-50 g of ammonium nitrate;
  • 40–80 g superphosphate;
  • 20-40 g of potassium sulfate.

How to properly water a pear

The pear is watered only in drought, deeply soaking the soil to a depth of at least 1 m:

  • It is enough to water very young trees of the first or second year after planting from a watering can or a hose with a splitter at the rate of 2-3 buckets of water per plant about 1 time per week.

    Very young trees can be watered with a watering can or a hose

  • Fruiting adult gardens on a dwarf rootstock are watered 2-3 times a month, on a vigorous one - no more than 1-2 times a month. The approximate irrigation rate is about 3 buckets of water per 1 m2 for dwarf gardens and up to 5-6 buckets of water per 1 m2 - for the strong.

    Pear on quince is fast-growing and fruitful, but needs regular watering

  • Traditionally, for watering adult gardens, water from the irrigation system is directed through grooves into holes around tree trunks.

    Watering of adult trees is carried out in holes and grooves.

  • It is more correct to arrange not holes, but rings for irrigation in such a way as to prevent the base of the trunks from getting wet. The width of the rings or holes should correspond to the size of the root system, occupying an area approximately equal to the area of ​​the crown of the tree.

    Trees grow better if water does not hit the base of the trunk during irrigation

In gardens of all ages, drip irrigation and soil mulching with organic materials is very effective to retain moisture and prevent weed growth.

Drip irrigation and mulching are effective in gardens of all ages

Diseases and pests of pear

The most common pear diseases in all areas of horticulture are scab and fruit rot, and among pests - the moth. Against diseases, trees are sprayed with copper-containing fungicides at the beginning of bud break and after the end of flowering. Against the moth at the same time, they are sprayed with pyrethroid insecticides.

To maintain the health of the garden, it is very important to timely collect and destroy the affected fruits (rotten or wormy).

Photo gallery: pear diseases and pests

Preparing for winter

Pear trees of winter-hardy zoned varieties do not need any shelters that interfere with normal hardening and create a constant threat of bark heating during thaws. To protect against hares, young trees need to be fenced off with a special protective net in the fall.

The advisability of whitewashing is highly questionable, but if you still want to whitewash the trees, do it right:

  • in the fall before wintering, and not in the spring for the holidays;
  • only young trees with relatively soft and thin bark;
  • whitewash not only the trunk, but all the bases of large skeletal branches.

    If you whitewash a tree, then you need to grab both the trunk and the bases of the skeletal branches.

How to grow a pear in a bottle

Growing an exotic curiosity - a pear in a bottle - is not difficult at all:

  1. After the pear has flowered, you need to choose several conveniently located ovaries.

    To grow a pear in a bottle, you will need its ovaries.

  2. Carefully put each selected ovary together with the branch on which it grows into a bottle.

    A young ovary of a pear, together with a branch, must be carefully inserted into the bottle.

  3. Fasten the bottles with ties on the inside by tying them to thick branches or supporting posts.

    Tied bottles are securely tied to large branches

  4. The pears will grow inside the bottles. When the fruits on the tree are ripe, the branches should be carefully trimmed.

    After the fruit is ripe in bottles, the branches must be cut

  5. For long-term storage, bottles with pears are poured with strong alcohol.

    For storage, pears in bottles are poured with strong alcohol

Harvesting and storing pears

Different varieties of pears have their own terms of ripening, collection and storage:

  • summer varieties ripen in July-August, are stored for no more than 2 weeks;
  • autumn varieties ripen in late August - early September, stored for 1–2 months;
  • winter varieties ripen at the end of September - in October, are stored for 3-5 months.

Winter pear varieties have time to ripen only in the southern regions.

Summer varieties are harvested fully ripe and used immediately. Autumn and winter varieties are harvested while still firm, when the seeds in them turn dark brown. Before being eaten, they must ripen in storage for 2 weeks to 2 months, depending on the variety. All pears are stored in the refrigerator or in a well-ventilated cellar with a temperature slightly above zero degrees.

You need to pick pears carefully, without damaging the fruits and branches.

When harvesting, it is important to pick the fruit correctly. To do this, with one hand you need to hold the branch on which the fruit grows, and with the other, carefully take the pear and turn it around the stalk so that it separates from the branch. For storage, the fruits are harvested only by hand. All kinds of fruit pickers damage pears and fruit branches, and the crop that has fallen to the ground is deformed from the impact and is not suitable for storage.

Reviews of pear breeding methods

With proper planting and proper care, pear trees grow well and bear fruit for many years, delighting their owners with annual bountiful harvests of tasty and healthy fruits.

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Pear: planting and care

Many of us from childhood are familiar with the riddle: "Hanging pear - you can't eat." But the pears, which will be discussed in this article, can and should be eaten.


Hanging pear - you need to eat

Pears are not only tasty, but also healthy, and they are also hypoallergenic. Even babies can eat them. Juice, compote, jam, dried fruits are made from pears, harvested for the winter. Therefore, for a long time, she took a worthy place in every third personal plot.


Pear fruit

Let's talk in this article about how to plant and grow a pear and how to care for it.


Timing

In order for the removal of branches to benefit the tree, it is necessary to calculate the favorable period for carrying out this procedure. If you are late or hurry with pruning, you can cause serious damage to the tree, provoke its illness and even death.

When it is recommended to prune the pear:

  • In the spring. Pruning is done before juices flow through the branches of the tree. It is desirable that there are only a few days between the procedure and sap flow. When it starts, the tree will immediately turn on immunity, which prevents the development of pathogenic organisms.
  • In the autumn. The main signal to start the procedure is leaf fall. Another condition is positive air temperature. If the thermometer drops below minus 5 ° C, trimming is no longer carried out.

There are no exact calendar dates for trimming. In addition, they depend on the region and the current weather conditions. So in a temperate climate, autumn pruning is completed before the second decade of October, in spring work begins at the end of March.


What else can you do in the spring in a pear garden

Graft

Experimental gardeners, as a rule, resort to this procedure in the following cases:

  • A tree has grown from a bone (wild), and there is a need to plant a cultivar (varietal pear) on it.
  • Not satisfied with the previously planted variety, and there is a desire to re-graft to a more suitable one.
  • On one tree, you want to have several varieties at once.

By the way! The site already has an article about how to plant a pear, in which disassembled all the main ways of grafting a fruit tree.

Advice! If the bark at the bottom of the trunk of your pear in winter is seriously damaged by rodents (mice or hares), so to speak, gnawed with a ring, then, to save the tree, you can to plant a pear with a bridge.

Transfer and landing

Of course, spring is a great time to start a new pear orchard (planting a young seedling). You can also perform the transplanting procedure, for example, if the place turned out to be unsuitable, and you must definitely keep an earthen ball when you dig out the seedling.

And about that how to plant a pear in spring and autumnread here.

Video: how to transplant a fruit tree correctly

As you understand, caring for a pear in the spring is not so difficult at all: all activities are standard (except for bending the branches, which is relevant only for the pear and partly for the apple tree). But if you do everything correctly and in a timely manner, then the pear will delight you only with a tasty and large harvest.


Watch the video: Awesome Pears Cultivation Technology - Pears Farming and Harvest - Pears Processing


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