Problems related to irrigation water


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Water for irrigation: a really problematic issue

I believe it is right to communicate to readers the characteristics and problems that frame and loom over my region: I'm talking about the famous and prosperous Tavoliere delle Puglie.

Puglia, it is important to underline it, is geographically located in the south-eastern area of ​​Italy with exposure on the lower Adriatic side: like all regions of southern Italy we boast of the Mediterranean climate but even more being a hilly and flat region we have an excellent exposure in the sun (an important factor for the sugar content of the grapes).

From Puglia, for those who are not well informed, 80% of the national product starts from the statistics I am completing, especially as regards the wine production sector, father of the best wines on the market in Italy.

Unfortunately, this year the most serious problem we are facing is the lack of water for irrigation, a problem caused by the low frequency of rains and which weighs heavily not only on our agriculture but also on the agriculture of other regions: I thought it appropriate to start the issue regarding the essentiality of climatic factors as they constitute the pulse of our agriculture.

A problem that determines the not appreciable size of the bunches and the low production: at least the only factor we can count on is the sugar content.

Considering this great problem, the only measure to keep in mind is to make the production of the sector in question economically viable, by programming a price not per quintal of product but by assigning a fair price to the sugar content to improve the quality of production, because what what counts on the market today is the quality of the cultivated wine grapes, which not only Puglia but also the other southern regions are the authentic masters who can testify to the originality of a DOC product, deriving above all from a fair and accurate cultivation program and phytosanitary defense in order to make the product better in all its characteristics.

Who knows if one day with the help of the Regions close to us, instead of creating a new road that connects two Regions, a watercourse will be created that connects the rivers of two Regions and maybe celebrate with the presence of the only head of the table. : mister wine.

Cesare Imbrici

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Suction problems in the irrigation or pressurization pump

We often hear that self-priming pumps (such as irrigation and pressurization pumps) have problems sucking up water. In almost all cases it is a question of drawing water from a well or other source from a depth of a few meters and, although it is often thought that the problem concerns the pump, in 99% of cases the cause is simpler.

Maximum suction depth

The maximum suction depth of a normal irrigation pump / pressurization pump is approximately 7-8 meters. This maximum depth is specified for each pump. If a pump has to lift water from a depth of 30 feet or greater, a self-priming irrigation pump / pressurization pump will not suffice.

If the water to be lifted is deeper than 7-8 meters, we recommend that you opt for a submersible well pump. This pump is placed directly in the artesian well and can push the water upwards thanks to the strong pressure it exerts.

Air, water and pipes

A self-priming pump (irrigation pump / pressurization pump) is equipped with a suction pipe and a discharge pipe. The suction pipe must have the end immersed in the water of the well. After that the pump can be started.

If the pump does not reach its suction power, in most cases it is due to the presence of air in the pipe. A hole, a loose fitting between hose and pump or a kink in the hose are problems that can cause malfunctions.

Try to think about when you drink a soda with a straw: if there is a hole in the straw or if there is a narrowing, then you have a lot of trouble drinking. This also applies to a pump, so make sure you tighten the hose tightly to the pump, even using Teflon tape if necessary.

How can I solve this problem? (work plan in stages)

Step 1: Check the suction depth

Try to measure from what depth the pump should draw water. If this is 8-9 meters or more, the pump will almost never be able to do its job and that is why it does not pump water.

Step 2: Check that the suction hose is not blocked
Examine the suction hose to make sure there are no kinks and / or constrictions and if so, remove them.

Step 3: Check that the suction tube is not punctured

A suction pipe is equipped with a non-return valve which ensures that the water always flows in one direction. The non-return valve is mounted in the lower part of the pipe. Disconnect the hose from the pump, fill this hose completely with water and reconnect the hose filled with water to the pump. If you turn on the pump, make sure there are no air bubbles in the entire tube. If air bubbles appear, the leak will need to be repaired quickly and easily using a piece of duct tape.

Step 4: Check the suction hose connection on the pump

The pumps and hoses we offer are all threaded. In some cases it is possible that the threads of the pump and the pipe do not have a 100% tight seal, even if they screw tightly. To ensure that no air can enter these points, it is preferable to use Teflon tape. You can apply the tape to the thread of the suction pipe, after which insert the suction pipe, screwing it, into the pump. Teflon ensures that the connections are sealed and that air does not have a chance to enter the pump.

Wasn't that helpful?

If these steps haven't helped you, you can always contact us. We will find a suitable solution for your case.


Make the most of the quality of irrigation water with a few tricks

Often the quality of the water is the cause of the greatest cultivation problems in horticulture and this is especially true in closed systems. Problems can be caused by the salt content and / or hardness, especially the temporary hardness, consisting of calcium and magnesium carbonates.

The systems and procedures for the reduction of bicarbonates and the filtering of salts are very complex and expensive therefore, where possible, rainwater is collected and used pure or to "cut" the irrigation water. the buffer system is missing. The use of rainwater makes the role of fertilization fundamental because it prevents unwanted changes in pH.

With Peters Excel and Universol for hard and fresh water, producers now have a simple means of correcting water quality.

An important distinction: hard or soft water?

Hard water has a high level of bicarbonates (HCO3-> 200-250 mg / l> 9-10 ° dH), a high pH and usually contains a lot of calcium and magnesium. Most nutrients are optimally available with a pH between 5.5 and 6 in the soil: a rise causes a decrease in nutrient absorption capacity. The intake of iron, manganese and phosphates is particularly inhibited by a high pH. Peters Excel is Universol for hard water, they lower the level of bicarbonates in the irrigation water, improving its quality, thus preventing the risk of an increase in pH during cultivation, at the same time guaranteeing the cleanliness of the irrigation system.

Fresh water

Fresh (rain) water has very low concentrations of bicarbonates (HCO3-


Conclusions

It is reasonable to ask, in view of the investment, if it is convenient to install a plant and if the costs of construction and maintenance will be covered by the benefits: a study conducted by the CIR, the Dutch International Research Center, concluded that collection is convenient where on average they fall from 100 to 500 mm every year.
The 2008 budget - law 244/2007, article 1, paragraph 288 - established that from 2009 the issue of the building permit is subject not only to the energy certification of the building, but also to the structural characteristics of the property aimed at saving water the reuse of rainwater. Some regions have already legislated in an even more precise way, eg. Lombardy, Tuscany, Marche, Lazio, Puglia, Umbria, while the others are in the process of being enacted.
The reuse of these waters is also taken into consideration in the ITACA Protocol, as the Civil Sector is today one of the major exploiters of water resources together with the Industrial Sector.

On average, the costs are amortized over a period ranging from 5 years, for those who use large quantities of water, to 15 ÷ 20 for those who do not consume large quantities.
However, this system makes it possible to always have water available to irrigate and cultivate small and large lands in an optimal way, even in periods of drought or in periods, increasingly frequent, in which the Municipal Administrations prohibit irrigation to cope with the crisis of the water system. The economic advantages for this solution are not wide and certain, there are only certain advantages given by the independence of water for the cultivable and the consequent possibility of always having a large reserve of water available even in the driest periods.


What to do in case of excessive watering of your cannabis plants

EXCESSIVE WATER IN HEMP PLANTS
Water is vital for all living beings, including hemp. Without a constant supply of good quality water, a culture can never thrive and reach its full potential. Too much of a good thing can be bad! However, this certainly applies to the volume of water supplied to plants. Excessive irrigation is one of the biggest mistakes made by new farmers and too much water can be harmful to a crop of cannabis lightlike too little water.

Especially in the early stages of growth, a seed plant appreciates a good amount of water and this need continues throughout its life, even if the demand varies throughout the different stages of the life cycle. The soil must be humid but never saturated and flooded, with stagnant pools of water. If excessive watering persists, the plants will be stunted, will not grow and will never give a satisfactory yield.

CORRECT ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF WATER

Implementing a good irrigation program requires the evaluation of some important considerations in addition to the frequency and amount of water supplied to the plants on a regular basis. Let's take a look at some of the essential cannabis horticultural considerations that are essential for success.

  • WATER QUALITY Good water quality should be one of the first considerations of any good cannabis grower. Since most farmers use hard tap water, the water will need to be analyzed for pH and may require appropriate treatment or filtration to ensure it is suitable for an optimal harvest. By purchasing a pHtester you can adjust the pH of your water according to your needs.
  • APPROPRIATE CONTAINERS
    In order for your plants to grow properly, suitably sized containers with excellent drainage are required. Depending on the size of your plants, the pots should be large enough to accommodate the root system. Square pots with drainage and anti-spiral net are more than suitable, the top of the range are the Air Pots®, both a great way to aerate the soil and provide drainage. In case you are using solid pots, make sure there are several drainage holes at the bottom to allow for complete drainage.

  • ADEQUATE VENTILATION OF THE GROUND
    The soil must be loose and not dense so that the roots can easily grow and spread to absorb essential nutrients. Restricted roots or too small and tight pots are very undesirable for good root development and healthy plants. To promote aeration, it is possible to drill several holes in the ground using the rods to obtain an adequate result
  • HEALTHY NUTRITION PLAN
    Since most of the soil additives and plant nutrients are mixed with water, it is important to create a feeding program that alternates nutrients / water with fresh, clear water. The alternation of nutrient-enriched water with clear, untreated water will provide your plants with a healthy nutritional plan without overdoing it.
  • SIGNS THAT REVEAL AN EXCESSIVE USE OF WATER

    If your plants are getting too much water, they will show you clear signs that will confirm this. Consider these warnings your plants are giving you. If you act in a timely manner, you will likely be able to improve your farming practices and get your culture back on track. If you don't do the right thing, your crop won't grow and will eventually perish or, at best, result in an unsatisfactory crop.

      • FALLING LEAVES
        A healthy cannabis plant does not have drooping leaves. Falling leaves can be a sign that plants have received too much or not enough water. The leaves of overcrowded plants curl and collapse, while the underwater plants sag. Plants that have received little water will have dry soil on the surface and 2 to 3 cm below the surface. If the plants have not been deprived of water for too long, they recover within two hours of receiving the water. The affliction of having too much water is a more sinister affliction.

    YELLOW LEAVES
    In addition to falling off, overcrowded plants develop yellow leaves, which is a classic sign of an unhealthy or overly wet plant. If the problem of excessive irrigation or drainage is not corrected quickly, the plants will not be able to grow. Yellow leaves usually appear after starting to fall. The yellow color indicates that the plants are not getting enough oxygen from the root system. The plants literally drown and the roots need to dry out enough to start functioning properly.

    THE SOLUTION
    The solution toexcessive watering of legal cannabis it's simple and obvious: stop supplying so much water! It means irrigating less often or providing less water during irrigation, or both. Allow the plant's soil to dry out, and in extreme cases where adequate drainage can also be a problem, transplant it into a new adapted pot with fresh, moist, and non-moist soil. If you tend to water too much, smart pots (fabric pots) are a great alternative to conventional pots and virtually eliminate the possibility of over-watering - although you need to water more often as smart pot soil dries out faster. . Allow the root system to dry in the pot for a few days before giving it water. Monitor the plants closely and provide the right amount of water once the plants start growing normally and healthy and have a firm, green leaf structure.

    CORRECT PROCEDURE FOR WATERING THE CANNABIS PLANTS


    Sometimes young shoots and seedlings need more water than usual. Since they start growing with a single root that is beginning to branch early, it is imperative that the early, delicate root does not dry out. Young seedlings are vulnerable to overly dry conditions, so make sure the soil is very moist, but never too wet.

    Once the seedlings are larger than the young seedlings and a few centimeters high, watering should be done every other day or when the pots appear dry. Since the humidity varies from place to place, the plants will dry out faster in some areas.

    Water your plants when the soil surface looks dry. Check the dryness of the surface with your index finger. It should be a little wet about an inch below the surface. Add water until it comes out of the drainage holes and collect it on the floor or in the drip tray if you are using them. No more than 25% of the water supplied must flow. If too much water comes out or the surface of the soil remains wet for more than two or three days, give less water.

    Another way to control the dryness of the soil - but it can be difficult to do once the plants become large and develop large flowers - is to lift the pots to check their weight. If the plants need water, the pots will be much lighter than after irrigation. This method is a quick and easy way to determine if irrigation is needed.

    Excessive watering is one of the most common mistakes cannabis growers make, especially novices. Fortunately, excessive irrigation is also one of the easiest problems to solve, as long as the plants have not been seriously damaged. If you water with the right amount of water, the plants will wake up, show vibrant green colors and grow faster. Once you get used to the right schedule and water regime, chances are you will never have too much water.


    Problems related to irrigation water

    Do you have a doubt about the irrigation of your plants? Do you want to build an irrigation system yourself but don't know how to do it? In this section you will find the questions that are asked most frequently by gardening, vegetable garden and potted plants enthusiasts, with the answers of Claber experts.

    Everyone can create their own "do-it-yourself" underground irrigation system with Claber products, the widest on the market, the Claber Irrigation Guide, with the necessary information and advice, and the Claber Design Service, thanks to which It is possible to receive a customized project, through the nearest Claber Reseller.

    As for the tools, all you need is a set of pegs and a wire to trace the path of the pipes on the lawn, a spade to dig and a hacksaw to cut the pipes to size.

    The Claber range for underground irrigation offers a complete choice of compression fittings, to connect the various pipes without the slightest loss of water and without special tools or materials.

    The other elements of the system, from the sprinklers to the drainage valve at the end of the line, are simply screwed onto the appropriate fittings.

    The flow rate is the quantity of water that passes through a pipe, in a given period of time: in fact it is measured in liters per minute, abbreviated to l / m, or in liters per hour, abbreviated to l / h.

    To know the flow rate of your system, you just need a stopwatch and a container with a known capacity: for example a 5-liter tank.

    Open the tap to the maximum and measure the time it takes for the water to fill the container: at this point just make a simple proportion.

    For example, if a 5 liter tank fills up in 10 seconds, the flow rate is 1 liter every 2 seconds, ie 30 liters per minute.

    Imagine the water contained in the system in the form of a column: the "weight" exerted by this column on its base is the pressure.
    It is measured in BAR - it is defined as "static" when the plant is closed, "dynamic" when the plant is in operation.
    To measure the pressure, apply a pressure gauge on the threaded end of a faucet outside the home, open it completely, not letting the water flow anywhere else in the house (the one measured is the static pressure). You can borrow or rent the pressure gauge from your trusted plumber.

    The dynamic pressure is always lower than the static pressure, due to the pressure drops due to the friction of the water inside the pipes: the narrower and longer the pipe, the greater the pressure drop.

    This problem can be solved by installing the appropriate pressure reducer / stabilizer on the water intake upstream of the system, in order to obtain an optimal pressure for the type of sprinklers used (drippers, sprinklers, micro-sprinklers, etc.).

    Of course: the programmer allows you to manage both systems in a personalized way, both from the point of view of irrigation schedules and quantity of water.

    No, because each system has different performance and water consumption, so it would not be possible to determine a correct irrigation time for each. The result would be that some areas of the garden would be too irrigated, others too little. The best solution is to create different lines, each dedicated to an irrigation system.

    It is not absolutely necessary to create a "closed" circuit: the important thing is that the diameter of the pipes is adequate and that the calculation of the flow rates and pressure drops is carried out correctly.

    The cockpit is designed to effectively protect the solenoid valves from the harsh conditions of freezing temperatures, without having to remove them. As a further precaution, it is good practice to install a drain valve at the end of the line, in order to completely empty the system.

    Garden pipes are available in several diameters, generally indicated in "inches", mainly to satisfy the available water pressure: if this is "medium", that is the one commonly found in domestic water pipes, a pipe 1/2 "will be more than enough for all the needs of small or medium sized gardens. If, on the other hand, the pressure is lower, say less than 2 atmospheres, it will be necessary to use a larger diameter (5/8" or 3/4 ") which by passing a greater quantity of water, will allow the correct operation of the sprinklers, lances and other accessories. The 1/2" hoses are also lighter, easier to handle and easy to rewind into their hose reels, therefore generally best suited to a small or medium-sized garden. Obviously, a pipe of a certain diameter will require fittings of the same size.

    This is a fairly common problem, as the water available is often not enough to run all the sprinklers at the same time, whether the water comes from the aqueduct or from a well. For this reason the system is divided into sectors that group a certain number of pop-up sprinklers or turbine sprinklers: the different lines are operated one at a time and are managed by electronic programmers such as Cometa or Criterium, which intelligent opening and closing of the solenoid valves positioned upstream of each line. With a system of this type, water can be distributed throughout the garden, without pressure problems. Best regards and see you soon.

    Especially in summer, the best times are morning and evening. Watering in the evening has the advantage of keeping the soil more humid, because during the night there is no evaporation caused by solar radiation.

    In the early morning, thanks to the light and heat of the early hours of the day, there is a better assimilation of the nutrients contained in the soil.

    On the other hand, it is absolutely necessary to avoid irrigation during the hottest hours: in fact the "shock" caused by the temperature difference with cold water could harm the health of the plants, while the immediate evaporation causes an unnecessary waste of water. , before it can reach the roots.

    Furthermore, the drops of water behave like real "lenses" that concentrate the sun's rays and can even burn the leaves.

    Certainly, with Claber products it is possible to create a drip system with programmer, fully functional already starting from very low pressures (0.5 bar).


    Video: PROACTIVE.: Καινοτόμο πρόγραμμα Άρδευση ακριβείας και εξοικονόμηση νερού


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