Nowadays, the problem of soil contamination with mineral fertilizers is very urgent. However, everyone understands that farmers, including gardeners, cannot do without them.
Competent use of mineral fertilizers with the use of organic fertilizers improves the nutritional properties of the soil, increases its productivity.
First of all, it is necessary to follow all the recommendations for the correct storage of fertilizers in order to avoid their erosion and removal by rain and melt water. It is also important to comply with the norms for applying mineral fertilizers to the soil. Only under these conditions does soil fertility increase and no harm is done to it. Not only podzols, gray soils, clayey, sandy soils, which occupy large areas in our country, but even chernozems require regular feeding, since natural humus (humus) decomposes over the years, and decomposition products in the form of water-soluble mineral salts are used by plants for the formation of the crop. Accordingly, the fertility of these soils decreases. In turn, the soil, well filled with fertilizers (strictly according to technology), is able to resist depletion and gain new strength.
Fertilizing the soil is not easy. Indeed, on one site different soils are possible, there are areas that are similar in this respect to a patchwork quilt. In addition, acidic soils require liming. The gardener must carefully distribute fertilizers so as not to offend the soil with either nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium. Excess fertilizers, mainly nitrogen and potassium, are washed away by rain, melt water, and groundwater. Phosphorus passes into forms that are difficult for plants to digest. Large, uncontrolled doses of fertilizer are harmful. Stopping the use of fertilizers and returning to the old methods of cultivating the land is the worst solution to the problem, since only on fertile lands do plants develop well. In terms of chemical composition, mineral fertilizers are analogs of living nature.
Applying mineral fertilizing in agriculture, gardeners mobilize the internal resources of the natural landscape, provide plants with the necessary elements for their proper development. Of course, organic fertilizers are also of great importance. Humus is a good absorber of both fertilizers and toxic substances; it is the orderly of the biosphere. Organic, intelligently combined with chemistry, works wonders to increase yields. But this is with proper application.
Currently, vegetative-synchronous fertilizers are also produced. They give nutrients to plants, taking into account the need for them in the phases of growth and development of a particular crop. Forms of macrofertilizers with the inclusion of microelements - molybdenum, zinc, copper, cobalt, iodine, manganese, boron and various plant growth stimulants - are also promising. Introduce new fertilizers, strive to use them correctly, keep your soil and your crop clean. But in order to achieve good results, it is necessary, first of all, to analyze the soil on the site. Then you will know exactly what fertilizers you need to increase yields, whether liming of the soil is necessary.
Enhances plant growth. This element is part of DNA, RNA and proteins, that is, there is nitrogen in every “brick” from which a plant is built. If nitrogen is abundant, plants quickly gain mass.
Increases productivity. It is generally accepted that nitrogen is responsible for growth, phosphorus for flowering, and potassium for fruiting. In general, this is true. But nitrogen plays an important function in the formation of the crop: it increases the size of not only shoots and leaves, but also flowers and fruits. And the larger the fruits, the higher the yield. Moreover, this element increases not only the size of vegetables and fruits, but also their quality. And thanks to nitrogen, flower buds are laid. The more there are, the more fruits.
Heals wounds in trees. Often after pruning, especially after a strong one, the cuts and cuts do not heal for a long time. As a result, the winter hardiness of plants decreases: heavily cut trees in winter can freeze slightly. And black cancer and other diseases immediately "sit down" on the frozen wood. This is when there is not enough nitrogen. Therefore, after pruning, the garden must be fed with nitrogen.
The first feeding is done in April: 0.5 buckets of rotted manure or 1 - 2 kg of chicken manure per 1 sq. m of the trunk circle.
The second - at the beginning of June: the same fertilizers in the same doses.
Instead of organic matter, you can use mineral fertilizers - ammophoska or ammonium nitrate (according to the instructions).
Accelerates fruiting. It happens that apple or pear trees sit on the site for years, actively grow upward and outward, but do not want to bloom. Five, seven, ten years pass, but still there is no harvest. Nitrogen fertilizers will help to correct the situation. To speed up the flowering of apple and pear trees, they must be applied twice:
Mixing of mineral fertilizers is usually carried out in order to combine 2-3 or more nutrients in one fertilizer for the sake of improving their physical and chemical properties and reducing labor costs for sieving. The preparation of fertilizer mixtures does not cause any difficulties, does not require special knowledge of chemistry. You just need to strictly follow the rules.
For mixing, powder and granular components are used. All mineral fertilizers produced by the industry are sold in packages called tukas. The storage requirements for this fertilizer must be observed, each package must be appropriately marked or labeled with the name, chemical composition and percentage of nutrients. If the fertilizer is complex, the percentage of all elements that make up its composition should be indicated. This percentage is called a useful substance, or active principle. It serves as the main indicator by which the doses of fertilizers applied can be calculated.
In addition, there are many works on the calculation and preparation of mixtures, written by experts and practitioners and published in periodicals and special editions. However, there are no two identical plots or two identical gardens, so you should delve into the recommendations and comments on individual mix options. This will allow you to select the best possible components for the preparation of the highest quality and most effective mixtures.
Universal fertilizer mixture for vegetable crops
For use on a wide variety of soils and for all vegetable crops, you can compose a fertilizer mixture that contains approximately equal proportions of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements - zinc, molybdenum, manganese, cobalt, boron.
Universal fertilizer mixture for peat and sandy soils
For use on peat and sandy soils, a fertilizer mixture is recommended, which contains the main nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements - zinc, molybdenum, magnesium, iron, manganese, cobalt, boron.
Preparation of a lime fertilizer mixture
The best option for lime fertilizer should be considered dolomite flour, which, in addition to calcium, also contains magnesium. Boric acid and borax are the most widely used boron fertilizers.
For acidic soils, it is advisable to use limestone and dolomite flour, chalk. Slaked lime (fluff) is recommended for use in the most extreme cases.
For alkaline soils, it is necessary to use a neutral calcium compound, namely gypsum.
Based on these recommendations, for the preparation of a lime fertilizer mixture, you should take 5 kg of lime fertilizer, add 40 g of boric acid or 60 g of borax to it. Mix all components thoroughly, after which the mixture is ready for application.
As a rule, alkaline soils are widespread in the southern arid regions of Russia. In such places, instead of lime fertilizer (chalk, dolomite flour), neutral gypsum should be used in the same amount. It does not affect the reaction of the soil environment, but at the same time is a source of calcium and sulfur. The rest of the components must be taken in the same amount.
Preparing a balanced mixture
Balanced mixtures are prepared from the most common mineral fertilizers. Each package contains the weight percentage of the active substance. It is always calculated for nitrogen (N), phosphorus oxide (P2ABOUT5) and potassium oxide (K2ABOUT). All fertilizers must have three numbers on their packaging, separated by a hyphen. In the first place, the percentage of nitrogen in this fertilizer is always indicated, in the second - phosphorus, in the third - potassium.
Suppose, on the package with nitroammophos, 17-17-17 is indicated - therefore, this fertilizer contains an equal amount of nitrogen, phosphorus oxide and potassium oxide: 17% of each nutrient. If the package with diammonium phosphate indicates 19-49-0, then this fertilizer contains 19% nitrogen, 49% phosphorus oxide, but it does not contain potassium.
For the preparation of balanced fertilizer mixtures, simple and complex fertilizers containing phosphorus should be used, in particular:
- nitroammophos grades A 23-23-0, B 16-24-0, B 25-20-0
- diammofoska - 10-26-26, 10-30-20
- granular double superphosphate - 0-46-0
Simple granular superphosphate (0-19-0) is suitable for preparing mixtures for alkaline soils. Since simple granular superphosphate has a low phosphorus content, any balanced mixture prepared on its basis will be low concentrated - you will have to increase the dose of the mixture by 1.2 times compared to the standard dose. In addition, superphosphates have a high acidity, which is usually neutralized by gypsum, therefore, together with simple superphosphate, a lot of gypsum gets into the soil. For these reasons, this fertilizer is best used on alkaline soils.
For the preparation of balanced mixtures - Azofoska (16-16-16) and other types of this fertilizer, as well as nitrophoska (11-10-11) have limited use. The limitation is recommended because these fertilizers contain a lot of phosphorus, which is insoluble in water. The share of water-soluble phosphorus in azofosks does not exceed 75% of the total phosphorus content, and in nitrophosks the share of water-soluble phosphorus is only 60%. In addition, nitrophoska is an insufficiently concentrated fertilizer.
If it becomes necessary to prepare a balanced mixture based on azofoska or nitrophoska, it is better to use it as part of a pre-sowing fertilizer, and not for dressing. In addition, the dose of adding a mixture prepared on the basis of nitrophoska should be increased by 1.2 times in comparison with the standard dose.
For the preparation of balanced mixtures, it is recommended to use simple nitrogen fertilizers:
When using urea for mixtures, it should be remembered that it is produced in crystalline and granular form. It is easier to work with granules, however, in the course of granulation, a certain amount of biuret is formed in urea - an impurity harmful to plants. Therefore, when preparing a fertilizer mixture, it is better to give preference to crystalline urea. It is advisable to use mixtures based on it only on alkaline soils.
Sodium nitrate - 16-0-0 (27% sodium) - has limited use for the preparation of mixtures. By its nature, sodium nitrate is the best fertilizer for acidic soils, since it does not oxidize the soil, but alkalizes. However, sodium nitrate has a low nitrogen content, which significantly limits its use for mixtures. It is advisable to use sodium nitrate only in combination with concentrated fertilizers.
Ammonium sulfate (21-0-0), like urea or ammonium nitrate, is a physiologically acidic fertilizer - it acidifies the soil. This side effect of nitrogen fertilization is undesirable on acidic soils in the Non-Black Earth Region. Therefore, ammonium sulfate is not recommended as an integral part of mixtures for acidic soils for one reason: its acidifying capacity per unit of nitrogen applied is more than twice that of ammonium nitrate and urea, which are close in this respect. Ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen fertilizer is preferably used as a component of mixtures for alkaline soils.
For the preparation of balanced mixtures, it is recommended to use potash fertilizers:
- potassium magnesium 0-0-28 (9% magnesium oxide)
In addition, manufacturers also produce potash nitrate containing 37.5% K20.
Cannot be used in such mixtures. potash (0—0—50), or potassium carbonate, although it is an excellent potash fertilizer that alkalizes the soil. The fact is that potash cannot be mixed with other fertilizers - when it is mixed with ammonium nitrate, ammonia volatilizes.
For the preparation of balanced mixtures, it is recommended to use such magnesium fertilizers as:
- potassium magnesia 0-0-28 (9% magnesium oxide)
- magnesium sulfate or epsomite (14% magnesium oxide)
- magnesium sulfate in the form of a reagent (16% magnesium oxide).
To prepare balanced mixtures, trace elements are needed. First of all, boron should be included in the mixture; molybdenum is also needed on acidic soils. However, other micronutrients may be required to correct nutritional deficiencies. According to agrochemical indications, you can add to the mixture the following microfertilizers:
- boric acid - contains 17% boron
- sodium borate (borax) - contains 11% boron
- molybdic acid - contains 53% molybdenum
- ammonium molybdate - contains 52% molybdenum
- ammonium sodium molybdate - contains 36% molybdenum
- copper sulfate - contains 24% copper
- zinc sulfate - contains 22% zinc
- manganese sulfate - contains 21-24% manganese
- ferrous sulfate - contains 21-24% iron
- cobalt sulfate - contains 18-20% cobalt.
Iron chelates can also be added to the mixture.
For the preparation of balanced mixtures, it is possible to use various options, but they are all united by one typical indicator: the main characteristic of balanced mixtures is the ratio between nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which should be close to 1.8: 1.0: 1.8. In these mixtures, magnesium must be present, the amount of which is balanced in relation to the main nutrients. The ratio between phosphorus and magnesium should be within 1: (0.2-0.5), ie. if the amount of phosphorus is taken equal to one, then the amount of magnesium should be 0.2-0.5 of this amount.
The difference between different blend options usually lies in the concentration of nutrients. Preference should be given to the most concentrated - their full dose should weigh no more than 8 kg, while the concentration of the main nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium - cannot be lower than the ratio of 13-7.5-13. The higher the concentration level of the balanced mixture, the less impurities enter the soil when it is applied.
In the process of preparing a complete balanced mixture for a full dose of a semi-finished product, it is recommended to add:
- 15 g of boric acid or 25 g of sodium borate (borax)
- 15 g of molybdic acid or ammonium molybdate or 20 g of ammonium-sodium molybdate.
Fertilizer mixtures of good quality can be obtained only from fertilizers with sufficiently strong granules and an even granulometric composition (1 - 3 mm). Granular fertilizers should be mixed well in a circular motion. Please note that microelements in the form of powdery compounds tend to settle to the bottom of the container, therefore, at the last stage of preparing the mixture, it is necessary to mix it from the bottom up, lifting the fertilizer from the bottom. If the mixture was not consumed on the day of preparation, then before each reuse, stirring the mixture from bottom to top must be repeated.
Some mixes damp very quickly after being cooked. It is quite possible that mixtures containing ammonium and potassium nitrate will become damp. This will inevitably happen if the mixtures are stored in a high humidity environment. A mixture that simultaneously contains simple superphosphate and potassium chloride is distinguished by a special intensity of water absorption - when these fertilizers are combined, a certain amount of calcium chloride is formed, which actively attracts moisture from the air. Working with such fertilizers is very difficult, so it is best to prepare mixtures in small portions.
It is desirable that the fertilizers used to formulate the fertilizer mixture do not have a tendency to caking. In addition, they should not have high humidity.
Some fertilizers either cannot be mixed at all, or can be mixed only in strictly limited proportions, since the compounds included in them are capable of entering into chemical interactions. Such a development of events usually leads to either a loss of nitrogen, or the conversion of assimilable phosphorus into forms that are difficult for plants to access. Therefore, fertilizer mixtures should not be prepared without neutralizing additives from ammonium nitrate and superphosphate or from urea and superphosphate. To neutralize a possible reaction, you can use chalk, ground limestone, dolomite or phosphate rock in the amount of 10-15% of the total mass of the mixture.
You cannot prepare a mixture of fertilizers from powdered superphosphate with ammonium sulfate, since this mixture hardens and turns into a dense mass. Before adding it, you have to grind it, which is inconvenient.
Mixtures are easy to apply to the soil when they are well dispersed. In order for fertilizer mixtures containing potash to disperse well, dry sifted peat or humus is introduced into their composition in an amount of 5-10% of the mass. However, mixing with peat and humus of mixtures containing saltpeter is unacceptable. In some fertilizers, when mixed, the physical properties are improved, the ability to dispersion increases. This happens when you mix phosphate rock with superphosphate or ammonium nitrate.
Some gardeners take the ideas of organic farming too literally and therefore refuse to use inorganic substances. But the effectiveness of mineral fertilizers and their indispensability in growing crops should not be underestimated.
Mineral fertilizer is a substance consisting of inorganic compounds that contain nutrients that plants need for normal development. Mineral fertilizers saturate the soil with phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, calcium and other macro- and microelements, contributing to the acceleration of fruit ripening. If you are thinking about what mineral fertilizers to use in your garden and vegetable garden, we suggest that you first understand their classification.
If you have nowhere to store and compost a large amount of manure, you can buy it in the fall and put some of it in greenhouses and garden beds right away, and put some in a heap for ripening. It is allowed to introduce fresh manure in autumn for planting cucumbers and other pumpkin crops (squash, pumpkin, melon), as well as dill, celery, late cabbage.
If there is a lot of straw or sawdust in the manure, in the first year after its application, vegetables will need nitrogen fertilization - coarse organic materials will bind nitrogen when overheated.
Manure usually contains a lot of weed seeds. Therefore, it is convenient to apply it not in spring, but in advance, from autumn: most of the weeds will have time to sprout during this time, and you can destroy them by loosening even before planting the main crop. In addition, during the winter, manure is saturated with moisture, gradually begins to rot and mixes well with the soil.
Ripe manure and compost can be applied to the soil in both spring and autumn. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. During the autumn application, part of the nutrients is washed out by melt water, but organic materials reach optimum moisture and then easily mix with the soil. Therefore, choose the method that is more convenient.
Usually, under raspberries, currants, strawberries, apple trees and other perennial fruit crops, rotted manure and compost are applied during loosening after harvest. Perennial flowers are also fertilized with decomposed organic fertilizers in the fall. In this case, fertilizers can not be mixed with the soil, but laid out like mulch - in winter it will play the role of insulation.
It is more convenient to dig up garden beds in the fall only roughly, without breaking lumps, and add humus or compost in the spring for planting vegetables. In order to save money, you can limit yourself to filling the holes for planting seedlings and grooves when sowing seeds with organic fertilizers.
Any summer resident has a dream of a good harvest. Fertilizers are designed to increase yields. But, the positive effect of fertilizers depends not only on the correctly selected type, but also on the dose, method of application.
Mineral fertilizers help to increase the yield, strengthen plants, protect them from insects, promote soil restoration, favor plant growth, thanks to them, the general condition of the soil improves, and the emergence and growth of weeds is prevented.
All fertilizers are subdivided into mineral and organic fertilizers. The difference between minerals is that they are not organic in nature, but contain more nutrients
In turn, mineral fertilizers are simple and complex. It is quite clear that the simple ones include one component, and the complex ones - from two or more. Complex fertilizers are more effective than single-component ones, this is due not only to the characteristics of the soil, which can have different acidity and different substances, but also to the fact that it is difficult to determine these indicators independently, therefore, complex fertilizers are used.
These fertilizers used in early growth plantssince they are often nitrogen starved. They help the plant to grow, gain green mass.
As a rule, spreading begins from below. Lightened leaves fall off. Not only tomatoes suffer from a lack of nitrogen, but also eggplants, peppers, currants and gooseberries, as well as all other crops.
These fertilizers allow plants to accumulate sugar and starch, increase their resistance to diseases and weather conditions such as drought or severe frosts.
They are used to feed plants during flowering, as well as in the fall after harvest.
It is customary to divide complex fertilizers according to the number of elements and production technology.
Specialists and experienced summer residents easily use fertilizers at different periods and for different crops. Plants often lack nutrients, not because they were poorly fed, but because of the mechanical and physical composition of the soil, which greatly affects the amount of fertilizer applied. Thus, clay soil lacks manganese and iron, acidic soil lacks zinc, peat bogs have a deficit of copper, and sandstones lack nitrogen, magnesium and potassium.
It is possible to determine that the plant lacks something by the color change in the foliage, by the shape and size of the fruits. If you closely observe the plant and provide timely assistance in obtaining nutrients, then, undoubtedly, you will have a good harvest.