Read the previous part. ← Growing seedlings of celery and parsley
Research by scientists has shown, and my many years of experience have confirmed, that the quality and age of seedlings are of great importance for obtaining a good harvest of peppers and eggplants. Seedlings should be healthy and "fun".
Recommended age pepper seedlingsto be planted in greenhouses, - 60-70 days from germination. The weather conditions in our area allow planting seedlings in late May - early June. If you leave 7-10 days from sowing to germination, then a simple calculation shows that you need to sow in the first half of March. However, it must be borne in mind that the recommended figures are suitable only for optimal conditions, i.e. 25-29 ° C for seed germination, 20-24 ° C for seedling growth, plus a sufficient amount of light.
At home, it is far from always possible to create such conditions, usually the temperature is lower, and there is little light, so the seedlings grow very slowly, and instead of 60 days you have to wait much longer. Therefore, in such cases, it is necessary to sow earlier - here each gardener empirically selects the appropriate sowing dates. We will immediately warn you against a mistake: do not sow too early, in January or the first half of February, because low temperatures and lack of light will lead to the fact that the seeds, failing to sprout, will simply rot. It is better to sow in early March, and this seedling will catch up with the seedlings sown earlier by the time of planting in the greenhouse.
Pepper seedlings can be grown in two ways - with a pick, even with two, and without a dive. After the pick, it is necessary to leave a margin of time for 5-7 days for the seedlings to take root.
Seeds must be examined before sowing and selected well-formed, ear-like, light yellow in color, with a clearly visible bulge near a tiny "nose". If this bulge is black in the light, such a seed can be thrown away. Purchased seeds before sowing must be pickled in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 100 ml of water) for 20 minutes, then washed thoroughly. There are many ways of pre-sowing treatment of pepper seeds - this is often written about in the literature. I prefer not to torture the seeds in any way. I consider it especially dangerous to harden future heat-loving plants by changing temperatures with keeping the unfortunate seedlings in the refrigerator. After all, they may not rise from the shock received.
In the option with a pick, the seeds are sown in vessels with a wall height of 5-6 cm to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. It is advisable to sow different varieties in different containers, because they may have different germination times. Usually early varieties emerge much faster than medium and late varieties.
You can sow with dry seeds or hatched - as you like. The crops are covered with foil or glass and placed in a very warm place - from 25 to 30 and even 35 ° C. Modern hybrids are especially fond of warmth. From above, for additional insulation, you can wrap it up with some kind of warm cloth.
When the loops of at least half of the sown seeds appear from the ground, the seedlings can be rearranged in a warm (not lower than 18 ° C) bright place. Remove insulation. If the seedlings have not thrown off the "caps", you need to help them by moistening them with a drop of water and covering the plant with a small glass to soften these "caps". And even try to gently remove them with tweezers. If these methods do not help, then the seeds are underdeveloped. Such seedlings must be removed, and new ones must be sown in their place. Further care is normal. Water only with warm water, loosen the soil - all as needed. Arrange a "walk" for the seedlings every day, starting from 5-10 minutes.
Make sure that there is no cold blowing from the window glass. When the seedlings have expanded the cotyledons, remove the shelter. At the stage of one or two of the first true leaves, the plants must be dived, each better - into its own vessel with a volume of at least 300 ml. Deepen in half of the hypocotal stem. Some gardeners go deep to the cotyledons. Pepper grows in either case.
I prefer feeding in small doses with each watering: I add a few drops of liquid complete fertilizer of the Ideal type to 1 liter of water. The older the seedlings, the more drops - from 1 to 5. If the April sun is hot and the room is very dry, I spray the plants from a spray bottle over the leaves - they love it, and shade from the sun. Peppers suffer from too bright sun. Before planting in the greenhouse, I do not allow the plants to bloom, I remove not only the bud in the first fork, but also other buds that are going to bloom. The first flowering is allowed only after planting in the greenhouse. Experience shows that the yield is much higher.
I illuminate the seedlings with a 40 W fluorescent lamp for 16 hours a day. As the seedlings grow, the lamp has to be raised higher so that the distance from the lamp surface to the top of the plants does not exceed a few centimeters. In this way, the maximum illumination of the plants is obtained. There are never any leaf burns from a fluorescent lamp.
Likewise you can grow eggplant seedlings... Only on the leaves I never spray them - eggplants can get sick from this. And when diving, I do not deepen it at all.
If you need to grow a small number of bushes of peppers and eggplants, then you should prefer the no-pick method of growing seedlings. With this method, each plant is immediately grown in its own vessel. At the same time, no time is wasted for the plants to take root after the pick, therefore, sowing can be done later, when it becomes warmer and lighter. I sow in mid-March. Seedlings grow better not on the windowsill, but in the depths of the room, where there are no drafts, at a room temperature of 20-22 ° C.
Sowed in boxes from under dairy products in volumes of 250, 350, 500 and 600 ml. The best seedlings were obtained in a volume of 600 ml, because the root system requires space for the normal development of plants. Sow 2-3 seeds in each glass. In phase 2-3 of a true leaf, it is necessary to cut off weak plants with scissors, leaving the best growing seedling for further growth.
Seedling care was the same as with the picking method. In the case when root tubercles are formed at the base of the peppers' stems (which means that the plant wants to form additional roots), I poured 1-2 cm of earth into the boxes. Plants in such conditions always grow very briskly. By the time of planting in the greenhouse, large fluffy bushes with two tiers of buds grow. Particularly distinguished by their health are those bushes of peppers, in which boiled fish bones were placed on the bottom under the roots. And the yield from such bushes is higher. Eggplant with bones was not tested.
Read all parts of the article "Growing seedlings for a new harvest"
Part 1: Growing seedlings for a new crop
Part 2: Growing Celery and Parsley Seedlings
Part 3: Growing seedlings of peppers and eggplants
Part 4: Growing tomato seedlings
Part 5: Growing Leek and Cabbage Seedlings
Part 6: Timing of growing seedlings for different crops
L. Bobrovskaya, experienced gardener
For sowing nightshades, so-called "fatty" soils rich in organic matter are used. It is most convenient to use ready-made soils intended for growing seedlings of vegetable crops or special soils for nightshades. Containers for seedlings must necessarily have drainage holes so that excess moisture does not stagnate and can flow out freely. When filling pots and cassettes, soil is poured to the top, because after watering, it will settle slightly. Before sowing, the soil should be well shed, but the water should not stand, otherwise the seeds may not sprout. But it is better to sprinkle the seeds with slightly dried loose soil.
The optimum sowing depth for peppers, tomatoes and eggplants is 1-1.5 cm. If sowing is too shallow, the cotyledons come to the surface with a seed coat that prevents young leaves from expanding (in this case, it must be carefully removed by spraying the plants from a spray bottle). If the seedlings are sown too deep, you will have to wait longer. If sowing in a box, the distance between the seeds should be about 2-2.5 cm so that the grown plants do not shade each other.
Growing healthy seedlings of peppers and eggplants with your own hands is quite troublesome, but it is quite possible if you know a few secrets, follow the basic rules and avoid common mistakes.
For eggplants, you should highlight a wind-protected, sunny, weed-free, fertile area. It is possible that earlier green crops, root crops, legumes, cucumbers were grown on this site. You cannot plant eggplants where peppers, tobacco, physalis, tomatoes, potatoes, and the same eggplants grew in the previous year. Do not forget to rotate crops in the area.
The ridges should have good drainage while retaining moisture well.
In addition, for each square. meter of the garden should be made:
Fresh manure should not be added, since in this case the eggplants will give a strong leaf mass, and they simply will not have the strength to form fruits.
The soil must be dug about 30 centimeters deep. It is best to make the bed high, up to 25 - 30 centimeters high. As for the width, a bed no wider than 90 - 100 centimeters will be convenient. The length of the bed is arbitrary, according to your wishes.
After digging, it is necessary to level the surface and shed the soil with one of the following solutions:
You can now land.
How to feed pepper and eggplant seedlings? When do we apply fertilizers? Prepare your first hearty homemade seedlings after picking.
Top dressing of pepper and eggplant seedlings after picking
The first pick is an exciting procedure for peppers and eggplants. Why? Vegetable roots are sensitive. When transplanting, it is easy to injure the seedlings, and it will take weeks to recover. Often, seedlings are lost if such deviations are not taken into account.
When to dive pepper and eggplant seedlings: after building up the 5th sheet.
Seedlings were transplanted in pots, dug in with earth and watered - it's time for top dressing. We are in no hurry to feed, and we wait 2 weeks. Enough time to buy and prepare food.
How to feed pepper and eggplant seedlings:
Preparing seedlings for the first feeding
2 days before feeding, we spill seedlings of seedlings. On the day of fertilization, we moisten the top layer so as not to fertilize dry roots.
Purchased fertilizer for peppers and eggplant
Kemira Lux: universal fertilizer for seedlings of vegetables and flowers. Use according to the instructions on the package.
Epin Extra: stimulating preparation for feeding seedlings and adult seedlings. Enough 2 drops in a glass of water for foliar spraying, or preparation according to the recommendations on the package.
How to feed for the first time:
Versatile ingredients contain nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Adding trace elements as desired. Nitrogen is actively consumed by seedlings in the first weeks of development. At the stage of leaves and buds, potassium and phosphorus are required.
Top dressing to accelerate the growth of peppers and eggplants: potassium nitrate.
Fertilizer for feeding pepper and eggplant seedlings:
Proportions for solution preparation: 3: 2: 2 per liter of water.
Homemade solutions are prepared for feeding pepper and eggplant seedlings after picking, when both roots and foliage have been saturated with mineral components. We use wood ash, herbal infusions, eggshells, banana peel powder... Using a banana peel as an example, we will tell you how to fertilize seedlings.
Peel 2 banana skins from pulp and films. Rinse under water and dry. Place on paper towels on the windowsill. The banana peel will turn black, dry out - dry it in the oven at a temperature of 100 ° C.
Take it out after 30-60 minutes. We check that the peel is dry. Transfer to a blender or coffee grinder and grind into powder. We use the finished dressing as fertilizer in the soil, sprinkling the top layer of the earth, an ingredient for preparing an infusion or a component in a mixture of dressings.
Strengthening pepper and eggplant seedlings
After the first dressings, add the nettle infusion: we dilute 100 grams of an adult plant in 2 liters of water. Move to a dark place for 2 days. Pour 150 ml portions along the rim of the root zone. After a week, prepare a fresh solution.
When to dive seedlings of peppers and eggplant into the ground: 10th of May.
↓ How do you feed pepper and eggplant seedlings after picking - share the recipes.
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Growing pepper seedlings almost completely coincides with the cultivation of eggplant seedlings.
Growing seedlings of peppers. Seed preparation.
3a two to three weeks before sowing, the seeds of all varieties of bell peppers must be checked for germination. Take 10 pcs. seeds of pepper and eggplant and dipped in fabric bags in warm (25 ° C) water for a day, then removed from the water, put in a plate and put in a warm place (30 ° C), keeping the fabric bags moist. After 4-5 days, the seeds that have hatched give an idea of germination. Even if out of 10 seeds only 5 hatched, the seeds are suitable for sowing.
The seeds are disinfected in a strong solution of potassium permanganate (pharmaceutical manganese) for 20-30 minutes. After disinfection, the seeds are washed with water and soaked in a nutrient solution: 1 teaspoon of nitrophoska or wood ash, or liquid sodium humate, or the Ideal fertilizer is diluted in 1 liter of water.
In any selected solution with a temperature of 25-28 ° C, seeds are dipped in fabric bags for a day. This nutritious seed treatment contributes to their rapid and harmonious germination, as well as accelerating and increasing the early harvest of pepper and eggplant.
Next, the bags with seeds are removed from the nutrient solution, lightly sprayed with clean water and placed on a saucer for 1-2 days at a temperature of 25 ° C, until the seeds are pecked. Sowing with seeds that sprout sprouts already on the 5th day.
With intensive cultivation of peppers seedlings, you can harden the seeds by exposing them to variable temperatures for 5-6 days. For this purpose, they take seeds after treatment with a nutrient solution and put them in the lower part of the refrigerator for 2 days, where the temperature is 2-5 ° С, then they take them out and put them for 1 day in a warm place with a temperature of 18 ° С, and then again for 2 days in refrigerator. From the refrigerator, the seeds are immediately sown into the seed boxes. In this case, the seeds, both in the refrigerator and in a warm place, should always be moderately moist (in bags).
Growing pepper seedlings.
Getting an early and large harvest depends on the timing of sowing seeds for seedlings. Sowing dates both for greenhouses and for open ground under temporary cover with film are February 1-15, no later than. But many gardeners, not knowing the biology of pepper and eggplant, sow seeds late, at the end of March, as a result, the plants begin to bloom only at the end of summer. This is because these crops take more than 100 days from germination to flowering.
You can sow seeds in mid-March, if immediately after germination, the seedlings will be artificially illuminated with fluorescent lamps for a month, while the seedlings are in the box, TS before picking them into pots.
In this case, you need to take lamps with a power of 40 or 80 watts, they are horizontally suspended at a distance of about 8 cm above the plants and are turned on from 8 am to 8 pm at night, the lamps are not turned on.
Several compositions of potting mixes:
1) one part of sod land and two parts of manure humus
2) two parts of peat, two parts of humus and one part of small sawdust
3) two parts of humus and two parts of peat
4) three parts of humus and two parts of sod land
5) two parts of Violet peat nutrient mixture purchased from a store and one part of turf soil
6) it is most convenient to use ready-made soil - a micro-greenhouse "Zhivaya Zemlya" without adding fertilizer.
In any selected of four nutrient soil mixtures (except for the fifth and sixth) add 1 tbsp per bucket. a spoonful of wood ash and 1 tbsp. spoon of superphosphate, mix everything well and pour into the box. To prevent soil leaching during watering, a side up to 2 cm high is left from the surface of the mixture to the upper edge of the box.
The soil mixture sent to the box with a layer of 6-8 cm is leveled, slightly compacted and grooves are made with a distance of 5 cm between them, watered with warm water. Seeds are placed in grooves at a distance of 2 cm from each other to a depth of 1.0-1.5 cm. The grooves are covered with the same soil mixture, the crops are slightly compacted.
A box with crops of pepper and eggplants is placed in a warm place at a temperature of 24-26 ° C. After 2 days, the soil is sprayed from above with water at the rate of 3 tbsp. spoons of water on the box so that the seedlings rise easily and amicably. On the 5-6th day, they closely monitor the appearance of seedlings and, as soon as the seedlings rise, the box is placed on the sunniest and lightest window sill with a temperature of 14-16 ° C. Such a regime is needed for a short time (6-7 days), so that the seedlings do not stretch too much and give strong roots. Then the temperature is gradually increased during the day in sunny weather up to 23-25 ° С, in cloudy weather up to 18-22 ° С, at night 16-17 ° С.
Seedlings in a box grow until two true leaves appear - about 30-35 days after germination. During this period, the seedlings are watered once a week. Try not to overflow, otherwise the plants will be affected by the black leg. The temperature of the irrigation water should be 25-28 ° C, it is advisable to use settled water. Top dressing of seedlings before picking is done 1 time with a solution of calcium nitrate (for 10 liters of water - 1 tbsp. Spoon).
After 2-3 days, the boxes are turned to the window frame (to the glass) so that the illumination of the seedlings is uniform.
Seedlings in the phase of two true leaves are ready for transplanting (picking). Such large seedlings are easier to replant and take root better than seedlings transplanted in the cotyledonous leaf phase.
3а 2-3 hours before picking the seedlings are watered. Seedlings cannot be selected from dry soil, since the soil will crumble from the roots.
You can dive seedlings into ice cream cups or milk bags, hollow peat pots, plastic cups, etc. The best sizes of cups or pots are 8x8 or 10x10 cm. They are filled with the same soil mixture as for sowing seeds. Then it is poured with warm nutrient solution (1 cup of liquid mushy mullein or 1 tbsp. Of urea or liquid sodium humate or liquid fertilizer "Ideal" or 1 teaspoon of potassium sulfate or wood ash is diluted in 10 liters of water).
When you make sure the pots are completely filled with damp potting soil, make a hole in the middle and plant the plant to the cotyledonous leaves (see fig).
Growing seedlings of peppers. Seedling care.
The cut seedlings in pots are placed on the windowsill, while the window glass is covered with a newspaper for 1-2 days to create moderate lighting. The main care of seedlings is watering, feeding, hardening and temperature conditions.
Watering should be regular, watered once every 5-6 days so that all the potting soil is moistened. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the water does not stagnate, for which holes are made at the bottom of the pot. If the seedlings are poured, it can cause the plants to stop growing (they are called stubborn). Water the seedlings with settled water of constant temperature (25 ° C). The first watering is carried out 6 days after the pick.
Watering is best combined with dressing. For example, finely crush the shell of 10 eggs, put in a 3-liter jar and pour hot water for 5-6 days, stir occasionally, then strain and water the plants. Or take 1 glass of the pulp of a sleeping tea, pour it with hot water in a 3-liter jar and after 5-6 days strain the solution and water the seedlings.
If the seedlings develop slowly and the leaves have become light green, feed it: 1 cup of mullein and 1 teaspoon of urea or 2 tbsp are diluted in 10 liters of water. spoons for 10 liters of water of liquid fertilizer "Green House". Green beautiful plants with small, poorly growing roots also need feeding: 2 tbsp is diluted in 10 liters of water. tablespoons of superphosphate and 1 teaspoon of potassium sulfate or send a little dry fertilizer "breadwinner".
It is a good idea to add wood ash to the pots 1-2 times during the growing season. One teaspoon is enough for 2-3 pots. Try to keep ash out of the plants.
In order to prevent the disease, the black leg of top dressing or watering is done only in the morning and once pour the "Barrier" solution (2 caps for 0.5 liters of water) to the roots, 1 tbsp. spoon. Unfold the seedling crates frequently to prevent the plants from curving.
For better survival, plants after picking need moderately warm air for 3-4 days: 20-22 ° C during the day, 14 ° C at night. In the future, it is necessary to maintain the following temperature: during the day, in sunny weather, 23-25 ° C, and at night 18-20 C.
When growing seedlings of peppers, you can harden the plants, it is done a month before they are planted in a permanent place. If the outside air temperature is 15 ° C or higher, there is no wind, in the daytime you can open the window frame or take out the seedlings to the balcony, gradually accustoming the peppers and eggplants to open ground conditions, while avoiding drafts. With proper agricultural technology, seedlings of pepper and eggplant usually do not stretch, they are compact, almost always have a green color, strong roots and are shorter than tomatoes.
By the time of planting, the seedlings should have 8-12 leaves. If the seedlings are intended for growing in a greenhouse, then they are planted from May 10. In open ground, seedlings are planted from 1 to 5 June and even from 25 May with the obligatory cover with a film. Before planting, the seedlings are spilled with water so that a nutritious soil lump is preserved when sampling it from the pots.
Eggplants and peppers can be grown in the same greenhouse as tomatoes. The soil is prepared in the greenhouse and fertilizers are applied in the same way as for tomatoes. Since autumn, organic fertilizers are applied to the ground in a bucket of 1 m 2 mixed with 100 ml of superphosphate.
Organic fertilizers can be replaced with 3 tbsp. spoons of nitrophosphate. If cucumbers grew in the greenhouse last season, then organic fertilizers do not need to be applied. After digging the soil in the greenhouse, potassium nitrate is introduced (3 tablespoons per 1 m 2). If the soil is heavy, then stale sawdust or sand (10 liters per 1 m 2) is added to the soil. How else to fertilize the soil to grow early peppers and eggplants.
When transplanting eggplant seedlings into a greenhouse, 2 tbsp is added to each hole. tablespoons of superphosphate or 4 tbsp. spoons of wood ash. When transplanting seedlings of peppers into a greenhouse, 1 tbsp is added to each hole. tablespoons of superphosphate or 2 tbsp. spoons of wood ash. 10-12 days after transplanting seedlings of peppers and eggplant in a greenhouse, the plants are fed with a solution of nitrophoska (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of warm water per 10 bushes). At the beginning of fruiting, pepper and eggplant are fertilized with a solution of potassium nitrate (3 tablespoons per 5 bushes) and pepper and eggplants are sprayed with a solution of magnesium sulfate (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water).
To obtain an early harvest of pepper and eggplant, foliar feeding is carried out in the greenhouse: 2.8 g of boric acid, 1.8 g of manganese sulfate, 0.2 g of zinc sulfate, 0.08 g of copper sulfate and 0.1 g are dissolved in 1 liter of water ammonium molybdate. The resulting solution is diluted in 10 liters of water and the grown peppers and eggplants are sprayed with it, spending 300 ml of solution per 1 m 2 of area.
Eggplant seedlings are planted in a greenhouse and in open ground in two rows on a bed at a distance of 50 cm between rows and 25 cm between plants. The distance between the eggplant beds is 60 cm. Pepper in the greenhouse and in the open field is planted on the bed at a distance of 30 cm between rows and 20 cm between plants. The distance between the beds of pepper is 60 cm.
Sprinkle pepper and eggplant with warm water. Peppers are watered more often than eggplants. Peppers and eggplants require more water during fruiting. Eggplants do not need to be huddled, because this will not affect the fruiting of the eggplant, the adventitious roots are not formed during hilling of the eggplant.
From planting eggplant seedlings to their flowering, 41 days pass at a temperature above 15 ° C, and for tomatoes - 11 days. From eggplant flowering to the first harvest of fruits, 32 days pass, and for tomatoes - 45 days. Eggplants of the Dwarf variety begin to bear fruit 10 days later than the tomatoes of the Gruntovy Gribovsky 1180 variety. In the Moscow Region, early maturing eggplant varieties, when grown under cover, begin to bear fruit at the end of July, and early maturing pepper varieties begin to bear fruit a week earlier.
Eggplant fruits begin to be harvested when they have not yet begun to darken. They are cut with a stalk after five to seven days. Sweet peppers are also harvested before they turn red or yellow.