Features of pear agrotechnology

Favorite pear

Pear fruits taste great and contain substances that are useful for the human body. Amateur gardeners show great interest in pears, and it grows almost everywhere on personal and summer cottages in various regions of the Russian Federation - from the Urals to the Black Sea. For the successful cultivation of pears, some features of the agricultural technology of this crop should be taken into account - from the choice of varieties to proper tree care.

Rod Pear (Pyrus L.) belongs to the Rozanov family and belongs to the apple subfamily. The closest genera are apple and quince. It is not for nothing that the fruit of a pear is called an apple.

Common pear (Pyrus communis) - the main species in pear culture. There are also many types of pears (about 60) - European forest, Caucasian, loch-leaved, willow, Ussuri, snow, Bretschneider pear, Regel pear, etc. Many of the listed species are the starting material for breeding new rootstocks and pear varieties.

Pear is a high-yielding crop that is not prone to periodicity of fruiting. Its fruits have high palatability and are a source of the most important biologically active substances: - organic acids, enzymes, fiber, tannins, nitrogen and pectin substances, vitamins C, B1, P, PP, carotene, flavonoids and phytoncides. Pears contain 25-30% more potassium than apples. This element is necessary for the normal functioning of the heart and the functioning of the nervous system.

Pear fruits have a high content of fructose and glucose, which are needed for the production of energy in the human body. Especially pear fruits are valued for their high content of chlorogenic acid and arbutin, which have antibacterial properties.

Features of culture

Pear tree root system
1 - horizontally directed roots;
2 - vertically directed pear roots;
3 - pear roots giving growth

The pear is characterized by some biological features that play a very important role for its successful cultivation and the effectiveness of agrotechnical measures. The pear is less hardy and more thermophilic than the apple tree. In harsh years, pear trees freeze fruit wood, as well as the bark of boles. While in the apple tree the frozen tissues heal due to the cambium and some other tissues, in the pear they are restored only due to the activity of the cambium.

The root system of the pear is of a rod-like type with few large branches. Such roots have a weaker ability to regenerate than, for example, an apple tree. This culture manifests itself as a plant that tolerates a lack of moisture in the upper horizons more easily than many other species and reacts sharply negatively to an excess of groundwater in the lower horizons of the soil. Groundwater is one of the reasons for the premature death of pear trees.

Pear is a light-loving plant that reacts negatively to insufficient light. The pear makes the greatest demands on light during the period of flowering and fruit formation. With a lack of lighting, the quality of the fruits and their quantity are reduced.

The pear belongs to the fruit species, in which the ability to form a crop on perennial branches, overgrown mainly with ringlets, is most pronounced. Fruit buds in most pear varieties are laid in the upper part of the strong growths of the last year and usually do not freeze during winter. Frosts are most dangerous during pear flowering. The pear blooms before the apple tree. Fruit formations come out of a state of relative dormancy faster, so they are more sensitive to frost.

Unlike an apple tree, in a pear fruit, the heart is limited from the pulp by a layer of stony cells (granulations), consisting of lignified cellulose. When ripe, granulations completely or partially disappear.

Small areas are occupied by industrial plantations of pears and they are located mainly in the south of the Russian Federation. This is due to the relatively low winter hardiness of the culture, the absence until recently of clonal rootstocks and reliable varieties of the winter ripening period, the lack of effective cultivation and storage technologies. At the present time, including with the advent of new varieties, certain conditions have developed for the introduction of pear culture into industrial production.

Popular pear varieties

Pear Abbot Fetel

The selection of the pear lagged significantly behind the selection of the apple tree. Until the 70s and 80s of the 20th century, the main cultivated varieties were: in central Russia - Bessemyanka, Tonkovotka, Autumn Bergamot, Bere Zimnyaya Michurina; in the south - Saint-Germain, Bere Diehl, Pass-Crassan, Bere Giffard; in Siberia and the Far East - Olga, Polya, Shuranovka. These varieties have a number of disadvantages and are now removed from the State Register of Breeding Achievements.

To date, research institutions have developed highly productive, winter-hardy varieties of pears with valuable biological and economic characteristics. Most of the new varieties, in comparison with the old ones, begin to bear fruit faster, surpass the old varieties in terms of fruit quality - size, appearance and taste.

Before planting pears, careful selection of varieties is necessary in accordance with the specific conditions of the region. For example, the best dessert varieties grown in the south of Russia - Conference, Kieffer's Seedling, Abbot Fetel, Bere Bosk, Lesnaya Krasavitsa, Williams, Curé - cannot be planted in its central part.

Pear Memory Zheganov

They have low winter hardiness and can die within 2-3 years. On the basis of variety study and zoning, a list of varieties for each region of cultivation has been determined. Below are the varieties for the Central and Central Black Earth Region.

Central region - Lada, Chizhovskaya, Memory of Zhegalov, Cathedral, Muscovite, Dressy Efimova, Memory of Yakovlev, Veles, Petrovskaya, Bryansk beauty.

Central Black Earth Region - Skorospelka from Michurinsk, Augustovskaya Rossa, Allegro, Severyanka red-cheeked, Commemorative, In memory of Yakovlev, Marble, Beauty Chernenko, Alyonushka, Yanvarskaya, Elena, Yakovlevskaya, Fairy, Wonderful.

Selection of seedlings

You wanted to plant a pear on your site. A natural question immediately arises: where is the best place to purchase planting material? Saplings of fruit crops, including pears, must be purchased in fruit nurseries, production departments of research institutes and specialized stores. They sell mainly zoned varieties.

Most of the sold seedlings are one-year-olds. A small number of two-year-old pear seedlings are grown, which have a crown of 3-5 branches. Unfortunately, there are significantly fewer seedlings with a closed root system on sale than with an open one. This is associated with certain difficulties in cultivation and transportation. These seedlings are somewhat more expensive, but they can be purchased and planted throughout the growing season.

Here are a few rules to consider and follow when buying seedlings:

- Each bunch of seedlings must have a label with the name of the variety.
- The bark should not be wrinkled, smooth to the touch, without cracking and mechanical damage.
- The root system must be well developed (the number of main roots is 3-5 pieces, the length is at least 25 cm). <
- It is important that the roots are not dried out. Normal roots do not break when bent strongly. If you make a small incision, you will see white fabrics.
- Saplings with an open root system should be without leaves, and in the spring - with unblown buds.

Planting pears

Landing pit

Seedlings with an open root system can only be planted in spring (late April - early May) and autumn (late September - late October). What is the landing time to choose?

In autumn, the set of varieties is larger and the quality of planting material is better. When planting in autumn, favorable conditions are created for the regeneration of roots and the survival of seedlings. However, unfavorable winter conditions can damage and weaken trees planted in autumn.

Planting pears in spring guarantees a good survival rate of trees with timely regular watering.

When choosing a place for planting, it should be borne in mind that the pear loves well-lit and wind-protected places with deep groundwater. Almost all types of soils are suitable for pears, except for saline, sandy and crushed stone. It grows well on chernozems and chestnut soils with a neutral reaction. Before planting on acidic soils, liming must be carried out, and the use of physiologically acidic fertilizers is also unacceptable.

Planting patterns depend on the vigor of the varieties and rootstocks. Vigorous varieties on a seed stock are placed according to the scheme 6-7x4-5 m, medium-sized ones - 4-5x3-4 m.If a pear is grafted on a quince, the distance in the row spacing can be reduced to 3-4 m, in a row - to 1.5-2 m.

When planting, they dig holes up to 60 cm deep and up to 70 cm in diameter. The upper fertile layer is folded in one direction, the lower in the other. Organic fertilizers (8-12 kg of humus) and mineral fertilizers (200-300 g of superphosphate, 30-50 g of potassium sulfate, 100-200 g of wood ash) are introduced into each pit. Then the hole is half covered with a fertile layer and mixed with fertilizers.

The roots of the seedling are slightly pruned and dipped in a clay chatterbox. The seedling is placed in the center of the pit and covered with soil. It must be periodically shaken and pulled up. This is done to spread the roots and prevent the grafting site from being buried. It is important that the grafting site is 4-5 cm above the soil level.

It is better to plant seedlings together - one holds and straightens the seedling, the second falls asleep with earth. The soil is well trampled down and a hole is made around the seedling with the help of a hoe for watering. A stake (height 110-120 cm) is driven in from the south side and a seedling is tied up with a "eight". After that, you can water. You need 2-3 buckets of water. After absorbing moisture, the planting site is mulched with sawdust or humus, and dry soil is also possible. The soil after mulching will not crack, and moisture will remain in it longer. In the first month after spring planting, depending on weather conditions, watering is repeated 1-2 times a week.

One-year unbranched seedlings are shortened at a height of 80-90 cm from the ground. In two-year-old seedlings, the side branches are cut at the same level. The center conductor is cut 20-30 cm above the pruning level of the main branches.


When cultivating pears, it should be borne in mind that in the first years after planting there is a risk of damage to the boles of young pear trees in the winter-spring period. This can result in the death or weakening of the growth and development of the entire tree. Such damage to the stems of pear trees is called sunburn and is the result of a complex of adverse factors.

At the end of February and March, the impact of solar energy increases, which is further enhanced due to its reflection by the snow cover on the stems of trees, and changes in day and night temperatures lead to their damage and death. Young plants are more susceptible to these negative factors.

To protect young pear trees from sunburn, it is necessary to whitewash all the trunks in late autumn. To prepare whitewash, 2 kg of lime and 1 kg of clay are diluted in 10 liters of water. Another effective way to prevent damage is to strap the booms with various materials or use special protective nets.

It should be noted that the roots of the pear are of the rod type. When digging, they are heavily pruned. Therefore, the trees are stressed the first year after planting, which manifests itself in a very small one-year growth.

In most cases, only in the second year, seedlings begin to grow actively. Therefore, careful post-plant care is required, aimed at creating optimal conditions for plant survival. We need timely watering, weed control, loosening of near-stem circles, foliar and root feeding, treatments against pests and diseases.

The implementation of basic agrotechnical measures will contribute to the normal growth and development of trees, as well as to obtain high annual yields of pear fruits.

Nikolay Khromov,
candidate of agricultural sciences,
department of berry crops GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin,
member of the R&D Academy

Read also about the pear:
• Pear - biological features and cultural history
• Varieties of pears of early middle and late ripening
• Growing pears in the northwest
• Choosing the best pear varieties
• Technique of planting apple and pear

Fig-leaved pumpkin: features of agricultural technology

For 17 years in a row, patterned pumpkins flaunt on my site, surprising passers-by with their appearance and productivity. Seeing a lot of striped fruits (sometimes more than a hundred), scattered throughout the garden, as if from a sack, many are interested: "Are these watermelons so abundantly ugly?" Jokingly, I answer in the affirmative: "They are the most!". In fact, it is a fig-leaved pumpkin, or fitcephaly - one of the few cultivated species of perennial pumpkin, which is grown under conditions as an annual plant.

Fig-leaved pumpkin (Latin Cucurbita Ficifolia) is a herbaceous fast-growing liana with long (up to 25 cm) pentahedral stems and heart-shaped leaves, similar to the leaves of a fig tree (hence the name). The flowers are large, orange or yellow. Like most cucurbits, fitcephaly is a monoecious plant, that is, both male and female flowers are formed on one plant. Fruits are round or oblong, weighing 2-5 kg, dark green with white-cream stripes. The pulp is snow-white, juicy, with a slight sweetish aftertaste, inside there are flat black seeds. The bark is thin, but strong, like the shell on a turtle, easily separates from the flesh. Peduncle without ribs, round and long.

Fig-leaved pumpkin is widespread in warm regions - Argentina, Chile, Peru, Mexico, where it is cultivated all year round. This culture is still not widespread in our country. Fig-leaved pumpkin is grown mainly by experimental gardeners, as well as those who are actively involved in breeding domestic animals. Many people have never seen or heard of this pumpkin. Nevertheless, in our conditions, the fig-leaved pumpkin feels quite comfortable and gives a stable harvest.

The agrotechnology of fig-leaved pumpkin is almost no different from the agrotechnology of ordinary hard-bark and nutmeg pumpkin, but it also has some peculiarities. Pumpkin requires a fairly voluminous space, because, firstly, the plant has very long climbing stems and overall leaves, and secondly, roots are often formed in internodes, which, germinating, create additional branching of new lateral shoots. 4-5 bushes are able to densely cover an area of ​​one hundred square meters

I have had cases that figurative "ran away" to neighboring plots and there abundantly bearing fruit or "climbed" on a pear, irga, apricot (to a height of 3 m) and swayed there until autumn, when it was time to harvest. I tried to grow striped stubborn people on a trellis made of polypropylene twine. The spectacle is simply fabulous! No one could pass by such beauty.

Fig-leaved pumpkin is thermophilic, the optimum temperature for normal growth and development is 18-25 ° C. However, the plant can also withstand short-term frosts down to -4 ° C.The vegetative period of phycephaly is quite long, the biological ripeness of the fruits occurs 160-180 days after germination. Therefore, I sow the pumpkin early, at the same time. when I plant potatoes (before April 15-20), risking spring frosts. But if, God forbid. it happens that the frost seizes and the plants die, I sow the seeds again after April 25. This was the case in 2017 and 2018 with tomatoes and peppers. But the figurative pumpkins were surprisingly persistent.

I prepare the plot using a walk-behind tractor. Before sowing seeds, I put a handful of humus and a glass of wood ash into the hole, mix thoroughly with the soil. The seeding depth is 3 4 cm. The distance between plants in a row is 2.5-3.0 m. Immediately after sowing, I mulch the soil in the holes with 3-4-year-old humus-sprinkler. This improves the thermal regime and prevents the formation of soil crust. The main points of plant care are loosening the soil and removing weeds. I have never seen pests on fig-leaved pumpkins in all 17 years

The peculiarity of the fig-leaved pumpkin is that it does not interbreed with other types of pumpkin. All my attempts to cross fitcephaly with "relatives" (hard-bark, nutmeg, large-fruited pumpkin, zucchini, squash) were unsuccessful.

I harvest the harvest before the onset of frost - in the first and second decades of October, or even in November, depending on weather conditions. I harvest the fruits together with the stalk and immediately bring them into the room to avoid significant temperature changes. I store the pumpkins in a dry room at a temperature of 10-12 ° C and a relative humidity of 80%. I spread the fruits in one row with the stalks upwards at a short distance from each other. Fig-leaved pumpkins have excellent keeping quality, can be stored all winter, or even longer. Twice, for the purpose of the experiment, the pumpkins were kept fresh for three years. However, there is no need for this, since I grow my favorite vegetables every year.

A variety of delicious and nutritious dishes can be made with fig-leaved pumpkin. One of them is constantly present on my desk. I prepare it from young fruits when they reach a mass of 0.5-0.8 kg and the seeds are still in their embryos, white. I remove the pulp, cut into small pieces, add 1-2 onions, cut into half rings, salt and carcass in a pan in vegetable oil. It turns out a very tasty, aromatic and delicate dish, it contains notes of stewed autumn mushrooms, mushrooms and zucchini. However, this dish can also be prepared from ripe fruits, after removing the seeds. Pumpkin can also be fried, pickled, salted, added to salads, it makes excellent jam.

In folk medicine, figurative gourd is used for diseases of the cardiovascular system, pancreas, digestive tract, gallbladder, liver, kidneys and other ailments.

For the preparation of collections, decoctions, not only fruits are used, but also roots, stems, leaves and seeds. Pumpkin leaves contain many useful trace elements: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iron. Fruits and seeds are rich in B vitamins.

I am sure that over time, the fig-leaved pumpkin will take its rightful place in the homesteads and summer cottages of our compatriots. After all, you are unlikely to find a more suitable pumpkin for long-term storage. And I also advise you not to be afraid of experiments, to be creative in growing vegetables. It always energizes me and inspires me to new achievements.

Features of agricultural technology of wild garlic

Ramson is a rather unpretentious plant and reproduces well both by seeds and bulbs.

For growing wild garlic in a garden or summer cottage, semi-shaded places under trees with sparse crowns, in the shade of bushes, on the north side of buildings and fences are suitable. It can grow in a sunny place, but it is heavily overgrown with weeds, the leaves become coarse and often dry out.

Ramson grows normally on sandy, sandy loam and loamy, but rather fertile, well-moisturized, slightly acidic or close to neutral soils. Plants do not tolerate stagnant water and waterlogging.

Nuances of agricultural technology: growing seedlings

Sowing seeds of tomato "Lazy" for seedlings is carried out in the third decade of March, they can be sown until April 5. Sprouting can only be obtained from seeds that are uniform in weight and size, it is recommended to select them in the following way:

  1. Make a 5% sodium chloride solution.
  2. Immerse the seeds in salted liquid for 5 minutes.
  3. The light fraction will float, and the heavy seeds will sink to the bottom. Those that have surfaced can be thrown away, since you cannot get high-quality seedlings from them, and those that have sunk to the bottom need to be collected and washed.

Also, experienced gardeners recommend treating seeds from pathogens before sowing. An effective way is to soak the planting material in a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes. After the procedure, the seeds are washed, dried and the seedlings are planted.

Sowing is carried out in boxes filled with a nutrient substrate made up of garden soil, humus or compost. For looseness, you can add a little coarse sand to the soil. Also, for planting tomato seeds, you can use ready-made universal soil for seedlings.

When planting seeds for seedlings, proceed as follows:

  1. The soil in the container is moistened and leveled.
  2. Shallow grooves are applied (0.5-1 cm deep) every 4-5 cm.
  3. Seeds are laid out in them at a distance of 1 cm from each other and covered with soil.
  4. The boxes are covered with plastic wrap and placed in a warm place. If the temperature is maintained within + 23-25 ​​° C, seedlings will begin to appear in 5-6 days.
  5. With the appearance of loops, the film is removed and rearranged in a bright place. During this period, it is good to supplement the seedlings with fluorescent lamps. This technique will allow you to grow strong and healthy seedlings.
  6. When 2-3 true leaves appear, the "Lazy" seedlings dive. They are carefully dug in, trying not to damage the roots, and transplanted into separate cups with a diameter of 8-12 cm.

Growing unusual pears

The first pears of an unusual shape in the form of a Buddha were raised by the Chinese farmer Hao, who for six years tried to invent a way to give the fruit a certain silhouette - and he succeeded. The resourceful farmer did not perform a miracle, but simply took the pears at the stage of development and placed their fruits in plastic molds that resemble the silhouette of a Buddha. The result was a new selection of pear fruits with a non-standard "design".

The cultivation of pears of the original shape is not new - the Japanese began to do this twenty years ago. It was in Japan that square watermelons were first grown - despite the fact that the technology of their cultivation was not put on stream, they are quite popular due to their easy transportation and convenient storage.

Today, many gardeners grow irregularly shaped pears by placing them in custom molded plastic containers. Small fruits grow in these molds, taking the form of a particular figure - in a similar way, miniature bonsai trees are grown, the branches of which are wrapped with wire and cut off excess shoots. Pears in the process of growing right on the tree fill the voids of forms, turning into unusual and artistically "twisted" fruits.

Varieties of the Duchess variety

Duchess, bred by Wheeler, ripens at the end of August, it is called summer. Later in Belgium, a variety was developed that ripens in early October. It is called Winter Duchess. There are also other varieties of the variety.

You can choose the best one only taking into account the specific conditions that the site has at the disposal of the gardener:

  • local climate and prevailing weather conditions
  • availability of free space on the site
  • presence of pollinating varieties
  • sun illumination of the place of the proposed planting of the tree
  • the possibility of Duchess shading other trees in the garden, and so on.

Summer Duchess

The tree of this pear variety grows up to 4 m in height. It is completely undemanding to the soil, has a rounded crown in the form of a wide pyramid, does not become infected with scab, but can be attacked by a honeydew or aphids. The tree does not tolerate drought and frost very well. After planting a seedling in a permanent place, the first summer Duchess harvest gives in the fifth or sixth year.

Summer Duchess begins to bear fruit in the 5-6th year after planting

Trees bloom late. Inflorescences have 6-7 buds, which successfully survive significant temperature fluctuations, but they do not self-pollinate. They are pollinated by pears of such varieties as:

Duchess summer ovaries are combined in bunches of 2-3 pieces. When ripe, large pears gain up to 180 g. At the stage of technical ripeness, pears have a light green color of the skin, which gradually turns yellow, small brown dots appear on it. Juicy and sweet flesh without hard inclusions has a creamy color and nutmeg aroma. Among dessert pears, Duchess summer fruits are considered one of the best in taste.

A thirty-year-old tree can yield up to 260 kg, which is a high figure. One of the significant advantages of the Duchess summer variety for gardeners is that the fruits hold well on the branches until they are fully ripe. Harvested in mid or late August.

Pears taken from a tree can be stored at room temperature for up to 2 weeks, and at + 1 ... + 5 ° C, the fruits will not lose their wonderful taste and unique aroma even in a month and a half. Summer Duchess pears can be processed into juices, preserves, jams, canned. They are not afraid of transportation over long distances.

Table: pros and cons of the Duchess summer variety

Duchess winter

Tall trees of the Duchess variety in winter resemble an elongated pyramid in outlines. They have no special requirements for the soil, but sunlight and heat should be available to them as much as possible. They will give wonderful fruits only in the seventh or even eighth year from the time of their placement in the garden. But an adult tree can give the owner a gift weighing up to 100 kg.

Duchess winter is a very productive tree

The flowers of this pear are not pollinated by their own kind and will remain sterile if pollinating varieties are not planted nearby:

  • Forest beauty
  • Williams
  • Olivier de Serre
  • Bere Ardanpon.

Winter Duchess pears are large, weighing up to 350-400 g, and if the tree is underloaded with fruits, then they can collect 600 g. Ripe fruits take on a lemon-yellow color and pretty pink "cheeks".

In the context, ripe pears are white, the flesh is juicy. Honey flavor with barely perceptible acidity is accompanied by pear aroma. The full power of taste and smell is revealed only in the fruits ripened on the tree. If they are harvested from the branch at the wrong time, all the charm of the variety will be lost. The winter Duchess is removed from the tree, usually by the end of October, when the leaves fall. The problem is that pears are not firmly attached to the branches and can crumble in winds and rains.

During storage, the harvested crop does not lose its merits until the end of the year. If you place it in a cool basement or cellar, then you can feast on pears until May next year.

Table: advantages and disadvantages of the winter Duchess variety

Duchess pears

Gardeners living north of the Mediterranean love Duchesse as much as southerners. Now there are more winter-hardy varieties bred for cultivation in regions where it is much cooler:

Duchess Moscow wild

Trees of this variety feel great in the Caucasus and Belarus, in Central Asia and in Ukraine, in the European part of Russia. They grow up to 20 m in height and live up to 8 decades. Not every year, but after one spring, pears are covered with clusters of pinkish-white flowers. Of these, fruits of different sizes will grow over the summer - from 0.15 to 0.4 kg, but the harvest taken from an adult thirty-year-old tree can reach 2.5 centners. What is surprising about this variety is that pears grown from seeds have all the properties inherent in the mother plant.

Duchess Moscow wild is unpretentious, caring for him is no different from caring for pears of other varieties.

and in summer, fruits of different sizes grow - from 0.15 to 0.4 kg

Duchess Moscow Garden

Moscow garden Duchess pears grow ten meters higher than their wild counterpart. Just imagine this huge tree covered with white flowers in the spring. And the fruits grow on it several times large - they can reach 0.8 kg and even 1 kg. Planting and caring for this tree is no more difficult than any other pear. The fruits of the Moscow Garden Duchess are excellently processed into jam, jam and other delicacies.

Duchess Angoulême autumn

This variety, unfortunately, does not like cold weather, its winter hardiness is very low, therefore it is grown mainly on the Black Sea coast. Duchesse Angoulême trees, similar to elongated pyramids, will delight the gardener with the first fruits only 5-6 years after the plant appears on the site.

Mature pears give an average yield, which can range from 70 kg to 1.5 quintals per tree. But each pear is heavy - not uncommon for Angouleme pears weighing 1 kg. At the same time, the fruits are endowed with the taste and aroma inherent in the Duchesses. They stick tightly to the branches even until November. Pears taken from the tree ripen for 2-3 weeks. At a low temperature, the cellar or basement can lie for up to 3 or even 4 months.

Angouleme pears weighing 1 kg are not uncommon

Formations for technical grapes

As for the formations, then there are options. For a non-covering area, the most obvious thing is a high-standard cordon. It can be one- or two-armed, with a distance between the bushes up to 1.5 m, one-armed is enough, with large distances in a row, a two-armed is more expedient. The cordon formation has proven itself best of all with a short cut on the horns, so the disadvantages of the cordon are leveled, and the advantages are obvious. Ninety, if not more, per cent of techies bear fruit well with short pruning into knots with 2-3 eyes.

For covering areas, classic fan or semi-fan formations are better suited. A half fan differs from a regular fan in that all of its sleeves are directed in the same direction. This does not change the essence of the formation, but it can be convenient in some cases when covering bushes. It makes sense to make the lower wire of the trellis in the covering zones at a height of 60-70 cm from the ground.

Rarely, but still sometimes capitate formations are still used. They are very easy to cover for the winter; 3-4 shovels of earth are enough for a bush. The formation is simple, the bush is cut off leaving 4-6 short fruit horns located close to the ground. From repeated pruning, driftwood with many cuts and stumps is formed over time, nevertheless, technical varieties bear fruit well on such formations. Due to the proximity of the bunches to the ground warmed by the sun, the berries ripen earlier. In this case, the bushes are located at a small distance from each other, 50-60 cm is enough, and the trellis can have a height of only 1.2-1.3 m. Sometimes, instead of a trellis, ordinary stakes are used as supports.
It is believed that bushes with the shortest possible conductive organs (boles, sleeves) give a better quality crop. How true it is for me is difficult to judge, however, I must note that some very eminent winegrowers of Europe think so.

The disadvantage of the capitate formation is the proximity of the location of shoots and bunches to the ground, with all that it implies. This is a high susceptibility to spring return frosts, the difficulty of mowing between rows, etc.

Bush size and stock of perennial wood

Growing table grapes, we strive to create large, powerful bushes. The stock of perennial wood makes the bush more productive and stable in fruiting; the best clusters are obtained on large and strong bushes. What is axiomatic for a winegrower who grows table grapes is completely or almost irrelevant for a winegrower-winemaker.Technical varieties most often lay fruit buds perfectly, even on small bushes, and the quality of pollination and the size of the bunches are not as important as the chemical composition of the juice of the berries. Wines obtained from old large bushes of grapes do not have obvious advantages, much more important are the varietal characteristics, the soil on which the grapes are grown, the load of the bushes, lighting, climatic conditions, etc. Therefore, technical vineyards all over the world, as a rule, are represented by small densely planted bushes (in comparison with table ones).

Agricultural technology of technical (wine) grapes

For the same reasons as mentioned above, wine grapes are almost never fertilized or watered. In addition, winemakers value their soils and try to preserve them. It is believed that wine conveys the flavor of the soil from which it was obtained. Fertilization by itself contradicts this thesis.
Watering is relevant only in the driest regions, of which there are not many in Russia. In any case, starting from the moment the berries are poured, watering is stopped.

On the bushes, standard green operations are mandatory, such as debris of shoots, rationing with crops, pinching, chasing shoots if necessary. There are no hard and fast rules here, as is the case with table grapes. Depending on the chosen planting scheme, shaping, pruning and the quality of budding, in the spring, a fragment of excess shoots is carried out. The main point of the operation is to create non-thickened bushes with good ventilation and illumination. Patching is carried out with full or partial removal of stepchildren, which also depends on the density of planting, the thickening of the bushes.
The grower determines the harvest load based on his goals. There can be a very wide range from overloaded bushes, the harvest from which can be used only for juice, to the strictest normalization, leaving only 1-2 kg of harvest per bush to obtain premium wines.

Protection against diseases and pests is not fundamentally different from the same for table grapes. Annual pruning is carried out at the same time, in the fall before the shelter of the bushes, and in the non-sheltering zones of viticulture and in winter.

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