Gray rot: control measures for tomatoes and strawberries, products and preparations, photo


Plant diseases

Gray rot (lat.Botrytis cinerea) - disease of plants, including cultivated ones, arising during transportation and storage of fruits. The disease is caused by the fungus Botrytis, which is a wound parasite. Sources of infection are sclerotia and conidia in soil and plant debris.
The development of the disease begins most often in protected soil on dead tissue areas in the presence of dripping moisture. Leaves, stems, fruits and flowers of weakened plants are affected primarily.

Gray rot disease - description

The causative agent of the disease is able to feed on all sorts of organic residues for a long time, and you will not even suspect its presence until the air humidity rises simultaneously with a decrease in temperature - then there is a high probability of plant damage by gray rot. Whole fruits, berries and roots are out of danger, but those with damaged integuments are at risk. Professionals call gray rot a "warm corpse parasite" because in order to capture living tissue, it must first settle in a dead area.

A gray rot disease manifests itself in spots on leaves and shoots. The spots grow rapidly, and in conditions of high humidity, these brown necrosis are covered with a gray fluffy bloom, consisting of mycelium and spores. When Botrytis gets to the fetus, it first affects the peduncle, and then the disease covers the fetus itself. Spores are carried by the wind, and since gray rot is omnivorous, it easily spreads from one plant to another. Garden strawberries, grapes, cabbage, buckwheat, gladioli and peonies most often suffer from botrytis. Gray rot that affects root crops is called clump rot.

The disease becomes especially dangerous during vaccination, since it affects both the vaccination site and the harvested cuttings.

Gray rot - control measures

Fight gray mold

At the first stage of the development of the disease in plants, the chances of recovery are quite high.

How to get rid of gray mold? Previously, soap treatments were used against this disease, but it turned out that even a high concentration of alkali in the solution cannot destroy the pathogen of gray rot. The drugs of the benzimidazole group successfully coped with the disease, however, the mutated strains of gray rot not only found resistance to them, but also found substances useful for themselves in them.

Treatment of plants with Bordeaux liquid is effective, but it negatively affects the quality of the fruits, therefore, spraying plants with this preparation can be carried out only in early spring and late autumn. And in general, they resort to fungicides only when all other control measures have been exhausted.

The fight against gray rot is also carried out using biochemical methods - with the use of drugs that contain spores of glyocladium - a hyperparasitic fungus that devours other fungi.

However, it should be said that a remedy has not yet been found that can completely cure affected plants from this dangerous disease, and all control measures are of a preventive nature - they do not allow unaffected fruits to get sick. Diseased plants or their affected parts must be disposed of.

Gray grill disease - prevention

In order to prevent the appearance of gray rot on the plants, it is necessary to treat the seeds and bulbs with sulfur-based fungicides before sowing or planting, and when seedlings appear, they need to be sprayed twice with an interval of 7-10 days with one percent Bordeaux liquid. The third treatment is carried out after harvest.

Particular attention should be paid to the fulfillment of the conditions of agricultural technology and, first of all, to the observance of crop rotation. It is also necessary to collect and destroy fruits affected by Botrytis, remove diseased branches, leaves and shoots. It is necessary to combat moths, caterpillars and other insects that damage the tissues of fruits and plants and make them vulnerable to the causative agent of the disease. And before laying the crop in the storage, the premises should be sanitized.

In addition, it is very important that plants are not deficient in magnesium and potassium during the growing season, as these minerals increase their resistance to disease.

An effective way to prevent the disease of plants with gray rot is to pre-plant in the area where botrytis can appear, plants that produce phytoncides - marigolds, calendula, mustard or nasturtium. In the fall, the site should be dug up, embedding these plants in the soil, and next spring the planned crops can be planted on it.

How to treat gray rot on vegetables

Gray rot of tomatoes

Gray rot on tomatoes in a greenhouse is quite common. All surface organs of the plant are affected - fruits, leaves, stems and inflorescences. Weeping brown spots are formed on the tissues, which are covered with a fluffy gray bloom, and dry gray or brown elongated spots are visible on the lower leaves and sections of the stems, which, with the development of the disease, become covered with mucus and close on the stems in a ring. Under optimal conditions for the development of infection, the pathogen of gray rot is capable of infecting even those fruits that are not mechanically damaged.

In order to combat gray rot on tomatoes, it is recommended to grow hybrids that are resistant to the disease (for example, Vasilievna, Pilgrim), treat the seeds with fungicidal preparations based on sulfur before sowing seedlings, maintain a low humidity level in the greenhouse, protect plants and fruits from mechanical damage - trim leaves, stems and side shoots only in dry weather and with a sharp, sterile knife.

How to treat gray rot on tomatoes? If spots characteristic of the disease are found, it is necessary to immediately treat them with a paste based on fungicides - HOM preparations, Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate and others. Remove pruning residues from the garden as they are sources of infection.

In the open field, treat tomatoes during the growing season with sodium humate - this reduces the rate of spread and development of gray rot on tomato stems by one and a half to two times. Good results with a prolonged effect are obtained by prophylactic treatment of tomato stems with a Trichodermin suspension after removal of the affected leaves and treatment of weeping spots with this agent. Processing is carried out during the day, so that the plants have time to dry out by evening.

Gray rot of cabbage

Botrytis quite often infects cabbage, as well as other cruciferous crops, and usually infection occurs with abundant dew or in rainy weather at the end of summer. Conditions favorable for the development of the fungus can be aggravated by freezing of plants. The lesion begins with the lower leaves, at the point of attachment of the petiole to the stump, then, already during storage, the heads become covered with a gray bloom, and the leaves are affected by wet rot.

How to deal with gray rot on cabbage? Unfortunately, the development of the disease is very fast.

In order to prevent the defeat of cabbage by gray rot, the following preventive measures should be taken:

  • observe crop rotation - four-field or five-field;
  • grow disease-resistant cabbage varieties;
  • water the plants with settled warm water;
  • observe moderation when applying nitrogen fertilizers;
  • remove heads of cabbage on time;
  • after harvesting, do not leave plant stems on the site - all plant residues must be destroyed;
  • lay the heads for storage in an absolutely dry form, without a single drop on the surface;
  • store cabbage at temperatures from 0 to 2 ºC and air humidity at 90%;
  • disinfect the room before placing the cabbage in the storage.

Treatment for gray rot on cabbage involves removing the affected areas and specimens immediately after signs of disease are detected. If you have identified them already during storage, place boxes of quicklime in the store to reduce the humidity in the room, and separate the affected heads from healthy heads of cabbage.

Gray rot on cucumbers

Infection of cucumbers with gray mold occurs through the wounds. Sometimes Botrytis enters the flower through the pistil, and as a result, the embryo rots. Affecting the leaves of cucumbers, gray rot forms large shapeless spots on them, covered with a gray loose bloom. The disease can also develop in internodes, which is why those parts of the plant that are located above the site of infection die. You can protect cucumbers from gray rot:

  • growing disease resistant varieties and hybrids;
  • systematically removing diseased leaves and flowers;
  • dusting the diseased parts of the plant with copper-chalk powder with the addition of crushed wood ash: 1 glass of chalk is mixed with a glass of wood ash and 1 teaspoon of copper sulfate;
  • maintaining optimal humidity in the greenhouse, while regularly ventilating the room;
  • temporarily stopping foliar feeding of cucumbers;
  • immediately removing from the garden and destroying plant residues;
  • disinfecting seeds and substrate before sowing.

Spraying cucumbers with a Trichodermin suspension can also be considered as a preventive measure. For the destruction of botrytis in greenhouses, a solution of Euparen multi (0.1%) is used, starting from the development phase in seedlings of two or three leaves. In the open field, a good result is obtained by treating the affected cucumber stems with an aqueous solution of chalk and Rovral in a ratio of 1: 1 or 1: 2, and to fix the agent on the treated surfaces, glue based on CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) is added to the solution.

If the disease progresses rapidly, treat the cucumbers with a solution of 40 g of HOM (copper oxychloride) in 10 liters of water.

Gray rot on peppers

If small dark spots appear on the stems, fruits or flowers of peppers grown in a greenhouse, gradually increasing in size, weeping and covered with a gray bloom, you should urgently take the following measures:

  • increase the ventilation of the greenhouse;
  • remove affected flowers, leaves and fruits;
  • clean the areas affected by gray rot on the stems and coat them with a thick suspension of fungicide with chalk.

In the future, observe the recommended planting density and make sure that the plants do not receive mechanical or any other damage. After harvesting and removing the tops from the beds, disinfect the greenhouse and replace the top layer of soil in the beds at least 5 cm thick.

Gray rot on sunflower

The pathogen affects all terrestrial organs of the sunflower. On young plants, the disease usually begins at the base of the stem - it turns yellow, turns brown and becomes covered with a gray bloom, and the part of the stem located above fades and wilts. Putrid gray-brown spots form on the back of the basket, often surrounded by a dirty red border. They grow and become covered with ash. The seeds in the affected basket lose their germination, but if they do sprout, then they are dark brown sprouts, which immediately begin to rot. Gray rot can destroy up to 50% of the sunflower crop.

In order to suppress the pathogen at the very first symptoms of its presence, the plants are treated with the fungicidal preparation Pictor.

In general, when growing sunflower, you should adhere to the following rules:

  • observe crop rotation, returning the culture to its original place no earlier than after 8-10 years;
  • grow sunflower after grain crops;
  • to maintain the predominance of the phosphate component over the nitrogen component in the fertilizing of the culture;
  • to carry out pre-sowing sorting and processing of seeds;
  • after harvest, remove from the site and destroy all plant residues.

Fighting gray mold on bushes and trees

Gray rot of grapes

Botrytis infects all ground organs of grapes, but gray rot on berries is most dangerous. The disease becomes widespread against the background of high temperature and humidity. Under these conditions, spores begin to multiply intensively on damaged berries, and then rot covers the entire brush. The incubation period of gray rot spores is 25-35 hours. When touched by a gray bloom, it scatters dust, spreading spores to neighboring berries and clusters. How to deal with gray mold on grapes? Both chemical and folk remedies are used to destroy Botrytis.

The least dangerous for humans is a solution of potassium iodide (2 g per 10 l of water), which is used when the damage is local. Proven remedies against gray rot include treating grapes with a solution of copper sulfate (5 g per 10 liters of water) or baking soda (80 g per bucket).

It is often impossible to spray grapes with copper sulfate, since the blue bloom that forms on the leaves after that prevents them from developing normally, and although baking soda treatments are harmless, they are ineffective. If the disease has taken effect, and you risk losing most of the harvest, you will have to resort to grape treatments with Topaz, Fundazol or Immunocytofit.

Gray rot of strawberry (garden strawberry)

There are seasons when Botrytis can destroy up to 80% of the garden strawberry crop, so the fight against gray rot on strawberries should begin even before signs of the disease appear. That is, you need to start with preventive measures:

  • it is advisable to lay the berry in a well-ventilated sunny area;
  • the soil must be prepared before planting;
  • when planting seedlings, you should adhere to the scheme recommended by professionals and not thicken the beds;
  • in early spring, be sure to clear the area of ​​old leaves that can cause botrytis infection of strawberry bushes;
  • a good result is given by joint planting of garden strawberries with onions or garlic - every 4 sockets, one copy of a culture emitting phytoncides is planted;
  • do not allow excessive soil moisture - watering the strawberries should be sufficient, but moderate;
  • do not get carried away with the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers;
  • to reduce dampness in the garden, from the beginning of the ripening of the berries, mulch the area with chopped straw or cover with a dark film;
  • from the beginning of shoots regrowth, carry out 2-3 treatments of strawberries with an interval of 10 days with iodine solution - 10 ml of the drug per 10 liters of water.

Gray rot on strawberries is destroyed by treating plants with garlic infusion in turn with mustard infusion. However, only fungicides against gray rot can provide you with a 100% victory over Botrytis on strawberries:

  • the drug Euparen multi, which is processed in the initial phase of flowering and during the mass flowering of strawberries;
  • a two percent solution of Fundazole, which is used during the extension of peduncles;
  • Alirin-B: the first stage - 1-2 treatments before flowering, the second - 2-3 sessions after flowering. The interval between sessions is 7-10 days. For treatment, 2-3 tablets of Alirin are dissolved in 1 liter of water, and for prophylaxis 1.5-2 tablets;
  • Switch - strawberries are treated with this drug before and after flowering.

Gray rot of raspberry

Since raspberries grow in one place for 15-20 years, over the years, its rhizomes age, the shoots become small, the yield decreases, and the raspberry loses its resistance to diseases. Unfavorable factors for the health of the shrub are also the thickening of the planting, compaction and clogging of the soil and the proximity of the raspberry to the area with garden strawberries, from where the trouble usually comes - the botrytis mushroom.

Gray rot on raspberries can do significant damage. To destroy the infection, several chemical treatments will be required, but you need to have time to carry them out before the berries appear. In early spring, the overwintered spores of the fungus are destroyed with a three percent Bordeaux liquid, before budding, raspberries and soil on the site are treated with a two percent solution of Nitrafen, in the bud formation phase and after harvesting, raspberries are sprayed with a suspension of colloidal sulfur, diluting 100 g of the drug in 10 liters of water, or with Cineb preparations, Tiovit Jet, Euparen, Sumileks, Albit or all the same Bordeaux liquid. If gray rot has affected the entire raspberry tree, it would be better to destroy the old planting and lay a new one.

Gray rot on the apple tree

Gray rot on an apple tree is called fruit rot, or moniliosis, or monilial burn, because it is caused by another fungus - not botrytis, but monilla. Primary lesions with moniliosis are localized on the fruits, which leads to their deterioration, but in addition to the fruits, leaves, ovaries, branches and flowers can be affected - they turn brown, darken and dry out. The most dangerous for trees is a monilial bark burn - cracks and wounds form on it, from which gum oozes, overgrowing branches and extensive areas of wood under the bark dry out. Fruit rot of apple trees occurs for the following reasons:

  • bark damage - cracks, scratches, notches, frost holes;
  • damage to the peel of apples by insects;
  • the presence of phytopathologies in the apple tree;
  • contact of healthy areas of the tree with infected;
  • susceptibility of apple varieties to fruit rot.

Hail, fog, dew, rain, abnormally snowy winter, cold lingering spring, high humidity and air temperature, windy weather, the use of dirty containers for harvesting apples, and for pruning and grafting unsterile tools, storage of crops in a non-disinfected room can provoke damage to the apple tree with moniliosis. ...

Fruit gray rot on plants manifests itself with the following symptoms:

  • flowers darken or turn brown, and dry up over time;
  • leaves, ovaries and fruit twigs darken, take on a charred appearance, but do not fall off;
  • small brown spots appear on the fruits, increasing in size;
  • the fruit pulp turns brown and becomes soft;
  • on the surface of the diseased fetus, gray or white mold pads are formed in large quantities;
  • the fruit turns brown or black;
  • neighboring fruits are infected, and then the branches.

How to deal with gray mold on apple trees? When signs of a disease appear, the affected parts of the plant must be immediately removed and burned, in addition, a cycle of fungicide treatments of the apple tree must be carried out. Inspect the trees regularly so that you don't miss the onset of the disease. Do not allow mechanical damage, cracks and frost cracks to appear on the apple trees.

Timely destroy pests, especially such as geese, moths and sawflies. Make sure that the skins of the apples are not damaged during harvesting. Place fruit in clean, disinfected boxes. Be sure to disinfect the room before placing apples in storage. Store the crop at about 0 ºC.

Gray rot on plums and other fruit trees

Moniliosis, or gray fruit rot, affects not only apple trees, but also stone fruit crops such as plum, cherry, sweet cherry, cherry plum, apricot and peach. Especially great damage is inflicted on fruit trees by the monilial burn of shoots, which causes the death of inflorescences in mass quantities. If severely damaged, the entire tree may die.

In the fight against gray rot of plums and other stone fruits, it is necessary:

  • grow disease resistant varieties and hybrids. For example: cherry variety Anadolskaya, varieties of plum Renklod green, Vengerki Omashnyaya or Azhanskaya, varieties of peach - Golden Jubilee, Juicy, apricot variety Red-cheeked;
  • cut off affected dry branches after leaf fall or immediately after flowering;
  • systematically collect and destroy affected fruits;
  • to carry out autumn plowing of row spacings and digging of near-trunk circles;
  • in early spring, before the buds swell and in the fall after leaf fall and collection of fallen leaves, treat trees and soil in the near-stem circle with two to three percent Nitrafen solution or one percent DNOC solution;
  • to carry out preventive spraying of trees with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or other similar compositions in accordance with the instructions before the very beginning of flowering, during the setting of fruits and the third time a month after the second treatment, combining fungicides with preparations for moths and weevils.

Gray rot on flowers

Gray rot on peonies

Garden flowers such as peonies also suffer from gray rot. Moreover, their early flowering varieties are more often affected, in which in the spring from Botrytis the bases of the shoots begin to rot. Then the disease spreads to buds and flowers, from which they first darken, then become covered with a gray bloom and fall off. But the troubles do not end there: after the middle of summer, large brown spots appear on the stems and leaves of peonies, then the infection moves into the roots of plants and causes them to rot.

In order to keep the peonies healthy, you need to use the entire arsenal of preventive measures, but if you do not want to fight the disease every year, choose pathogen-resistant varieties and hybrids for growing, plant them in well-lit areas with permeable and fertile soil away from the roots of the bushes and trees.

When planting, inspect the root system and remove rotten roots with a sharp, sterile instrument by treating the sections with green paint or charcoal. It would be nice to warm the roots of peonies for 10-12 minutes in water at a temperature of 60-70 ºC, dry it, and only then plant it, be sure to add a couple of glasses of wood ash to the hole.

Do not apply nitrogen fertilizer to the soil after the peonies bloom. In the spring and summer, remove damaged parts of the plants, and in the fall, be sure to cut the stems.

But if it happens that you have to resort to chemical preparations for gray rot, use Vectra, Skor or Maxim.

Gray rot on roses

Gray rot of roses is especially active in winter under cover: depressed brown spots appear and grow on the upper parts of the stems, which quickly cover the entire stem from top to bottom. Then gray mold appears on the affected areas. With insufficient ventilation, the disease can affect the entire bush.

In summer, the disease manifests itself with a sharp change in temperature against the background of heavy rainfall. Spots appear on the leaves without a clear border, a gray bloom forms on them, quickly covering neighboring healthy shoots, leaves and flowers, on which light round spots are formed, which also turn brown over time and become covered with a gray bloom of decay. Gray rot is most dangerous for grafted roses, as it causes damage to the root collar.

To destroy botrytis on roses, you need to treat the plants with a solution of the preparations Gamair, Euparen multi, Fundazol, Alirin-B, Fitosporin-M in accordance with the instructions. Spraying roses with a solution of Benlat is effective, which is repeated every 4-5 days until the symptoms of the disease disappear on the roses. But first, you need to remove the parts of the plants affected by gray rot and create optimal conditions for the roses for recovery.

In the future, you need to regularly loosen the soil in the near-stem circle of roses and periodically mulch it. Manganese-containing fertilizers strengthen the resistance of plants to gray rot, which slow down the reproduction of harmful fungi.

Gray rot on lilies

Gray rot causes trouble and lilies, if the cultivation takes place in violation of agricultural technology. Most often, the disease affects plants after cold precipitation, when the leaves do not have time to dry out by night, or as a result of sudden changes in day and night temperatures. As a result of botrytis infection, the vegetation of lilies is greatly slowed down. The most resistant to gray rot are LA and OT hybrids. Botrytis appears in round brown spots with a dark red border - they merge and become covered with a gray bloom.

So that your lilies do not get sick with gray rot, pickle the bulbs before planting in a Fundazole solution, change the plot for them more often so that pathogens do not accumulate in the soil, do not plant them too thickly and add wood ash to the hole when planting. Exercise moderation when wetting the soil and water the lilies at the root only in the morning.

In the spring, for prevention, treat the lilies with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, and then carry out two more treatments of the plants with this preparation with an interval of 7-10 days. During the rainy season, do not let the plants get wet - cover them with a canopy of greenhouse film.

Gray rot on indoor plants

Gray rot on an orchid

Since gray rot occurs in cool, damp weather with poor ventilation, it can also attack indoor plants such as phalaenopsis or cattleya. Older flowers are most susceptible to Botrytis. First, brown spots appear on the flowers of the orchid, then they increase, a pale pink rim appears around them, and if the disease enters into force, the spots will begin to merge, and you will see the familiar gray bloom.

As soon as you notice the first signs of illness, immediately take action to change the conditions of the orchid, as fungicides can prevent further outbreaks of the disease, but do not completely cure the plant.

Find out what changes led to the activation of Botrytis, and first of all, remove dead debris, fallen flowers and leaves to reduce the possibility of infection spread. Organize air circulation in the room, maintain the temperature at the desired level and make sure that the air humidity is not higher than the prescribed level. When watering an orchid, do not pour water on the plant itself - the water should get into the substrate, and not on the flowers or leaves.

Inspect nearby plants for diseases and pests, especially those susceptible to gray mold - Saintpaulias, fuchsia, amaryllis, camellia, calla lilies, castor oil plants, lilies, azaleas, begonias, cacti, ferns and caladiums. If you have a new orchid, keep it separate from the others for at least two weeks and observe it during this period.

Gray rot on violets

Often, beginners in floriculture, fascinated by the cozy beauty of the uzambar violets, surround them with excessive care, arranging for them to spray the leaves and water them too often. And this can lead to the appearance of gray rot on the violets - brown spots, followed by a gray fluffy bloom. As soon as you understand that the violet is infected, treat it with some kind of fungicide, for example, Sumileks or Teldor. And of course, reduce watering and stop spraying. If the violet is irrevocably destroyed, look for a healthy leaf on it and try to root it.

A few tips for beginners: do not rush to identify the newly acquired violet to those that you already have, keep it separately and observe for a month whether any infections or harmful insects appear. And only if you are sure that everything is in order, can you put the flower in its permanent place.

Use the bottom watering method to moisten the soil: place the violet in a bowl filled with water so that it does not overflow into the plant pot, and hold until the surface of the substrate shines with moisture. After that, remove the flower pot from the bowl, let the excess water drain and put the violet back in place. Change the water in the bowl for each plant, or you can spread the infection. Bottom watering is carried out once every one and a half to two weeks.

Preparations for gray rot

We invite you to get acquainted with the fungicides most often used to destroy gray rot:

  • Teldor - a local systemic fungicide against gray mold with low toxicity. Method of application - 8 g per 10 liters of water for processing peaches, strawberries and 5 g per 10 liters of water for processing grapes;
  • Sumileks - fungicide of protective and curative contact action with some systemic action;
  • Fundazol - a disinfectant of a wide spectrum of systemic action, which can be used for treatment no more than two times during the season, otherwise the plants develop resistance. The drug is dangerous to humans and animals;
  • Gamair - biological bactericide of preventive and therapeutic action, safe for humans and animals;
  • Alirin-B - biological fungicide for the fight against fungal diseases, close in action to Fitosporin. Safe for humans and animals;
  • Euparen multi - a broad-spectrum fungicide, especially effective against gray mold. Moderately toxic;
  • Fitosporin-M - a microbiological preparation of contact action, low-toxic for humans, but dangerous for bees and the plants themselves;
  • Vectra - a drug of contact-systemic action for protection and treatment against fungal diseases;
  • Speed - systemic fungicide with long-term prophylactic and therapeutic effect - dissolve 2 ml of the drug in 10 liters of water;
  • Maxim - a contact agent for the treatment of seed and planting material. Safe for humans, but toxic for fish;
  • HOM - copper oxychloride, a drug of systemic-local and contact action, moderately hazardous to humans;
  • DNOC - a potent broad-spectrum preparation with fungicidal, herbicidal and insecticidal properties. Toxic to humans and animals, explosive and flammable;
  • Tsineb - contact-systemic fungicide and pesticide, toxic to animals and humans;
  • Tiovit Jet - moderately dangerous for humans and animals contact fungicide and acaricide;
  • Trichodermin - biological fungicide of preventive and therapeutic action, safe for humans and animals;
  • Immunityphyte - multipurpose stimulator of defense reactions, development and growth of plants;
  • Topaz - a systemic drug used to suppress primary infection. Safe for humans and birds, but toxic for fish.

Folk remedies for fighting gray mold

In order not to use chemicals for processing vegetables and fruits, which are at least not useful, we offer you several recipes for folk remedies to combat gray rot:

  • garlic infusion: 100 g of garlic husks are infused during the day in 10 liters of water heated to 40 ºC;
  • mustard infusion: 50 g of mustard powder is poured with five liters of hot water, infused for 48 hours and diluted with water 1: 1;
  • prepare such a solution: dilute a glass of wood ash, a glass of chalk and a teaspoon of copper sulfate in 10 liters of water - this amount of solution is enough for you to process 2-3 m² of a plot with cucumbers or strawberries;
  • iodine solution for the prevention of gray rot: dilute 10 drops of iodine in a bucket of water and treat the plants with this composition once a week;
  • if signs of disease appear on garden strawberries, spray the plants and soil on the site with a solution of 2 glasses of wood ash in a bucket of water;
  • treat the leaves and bases of strawberry bushes from gray rot during the appearance of ovaries with dry lime at the rate of 15-20 g per bush.

Literature

  1. Plant Disease Information

Sections: Diseases Diseases of indoor plants


Whitefly

Aleurodids (Aleyrodidae), or whiteflies, are a family of small equiptera, which unites more than one and a half thousand species. The scientific name of this family, derived from the Greek word, is translated as "flour", and this is due to the fact that there is a powdery coating on the surface of the wings of such an insect. Whitefly is a very dangerous insect that can seriously harm both indoor and horticultural crops.Also, this pest is able to penetrate the greenhouse.


Why tomatoes turn black on a bush - an overview of the reasons

Black dots on tomatoes and drying of leaves can appear at any stage of plant development:

  • leaves darken and dry in tomato seedlings, most often due to improperly selected soil mixture and in case of errors in care
  • the trunk turned black - the seedlings got sick with a black leg
  • the lower leaves of tomatoes turn black - sad, but this is late blight
  • the tips of the leaves and the tops of the shoots curl and turn black - alternariosis
  • why green tomatoes turn black, there may be several reasons: top rot (tomato fruits turn black from below), gray and watery rot, bacterial cancer, anthractosis and alternaria
  • dark spots appear, leaves of tomatoes wither, and then tomatoes are affected with brown spot.

In greenhouses, there is another reason characterized by blackening of tomato leaves: with poor ventilation, the plants simply do not have enough air. When breathing is disturbed, the leaf plates turn black and dry, flowers and ovaries fall off, and the bushes get sick with fungal infections.

As you can see, the tomato leaves darken and wither, the bush withers, black spots appear on the tomatoes for various reasons and therefore the methods of how to deal with this are different. We will tell you how to process tomatoes and what to do for prevention, so that the bushes and fruits do not turn black in each case.


How to treat gray rot?

Gray mold is a fungal disease. It can form on tomatoes grown both in the greenhouse and outdoors. It appears due to the high level of moisture and an excess of fertilizing with a high nitrogen content. First of all, it affects the tomato foliage, which is why small dots are formed on it, which soon increase, and then the fruits themselves.

It is necessary to treat the disease as quickly as possible, since under favorable conditions it is very actively transferred to healthy plants.

Chemicals

Chemicals in the fight against gray mold are considered the most effective, however, many summer residents do not like to use them for the simple reason that such drugs are highly toxic and often accumulate in the fruits and foliage of the plant, which is not beneficial to them. Moreover, such agents can scare off pollinating insects, which help the plant in many ways, and, if used improperly, harm the person himself. THowever, it is the use of chemicals that is the surest step in the fight against gray mold.

So, to eliminate gray rot, you can use the coating of tomato bushes with fungicidal agents. Wherein it is worth paying attention to the instructions, it accurately indicates the dosage and frequency of use.

Do not neglect these data, otherwise there is a risk of causing much more harm to the plant than benefit.

An example is the recipe for the following coating solution. You will need 10 liters of water, 0.33 kilograms of CMC glue, 20-50 grams of fungicide and some chalk. Usually, of the fungicides, summer residents most often resort to using such products as Topaz, Oksikhom and Kuproskat. All components must be thoroughly mixed to such a state that the mixture looks like a paste. Next, the rot is treated in such a way that the product gets into 3 centimeters of untouched tissue.

You can also resort to the treatment with Bordeaux liquid. Sick plants need to be sprayed 3 times at intervals of 10 days. It is not recommended to carry out treatment with such a remedy more than 4 times per season. If the disease arose even at the seedling stage before planting in a permanent place, then the treatment of plants with this agent must be carried out a week or two before planting the tomatoes.

The solution is prepared as follows. You will need a container with a volume of 10 liters from any material, except metal, 2 liters of hot water and 100 grams of copper sulfate. All components are well mixed, after which another 3 liters of cool water is added to the solution.

A solution of lime is prepared separately. This requires 0.15 kg of lime and a liter of water. 4 liters of cool water are poured into a separate container, after which a mixture of lime is added there. All this is mixed well and filtered through a non-metallic strainer or gauze. Further, a mixture of copper sulfate is gradually added to the same container and it all mixes well.

When processing drugs that contain toxic substances, be careful. Follow the safety instructions, follow the instructions strictly and do not neglect the protective equipment. When processing, use a protective mask, goggles and rubber gloves, so as not to harm your own health.

Note that during the harvesting period, the use of such preparations is prohibited.

Biologicals

Biological agents are another sure-fire method for fighting gray mold. They are effective and completely harmless to both humans and beneficial insects. Among such drugs, Agat 25K, Gamair, Alirin-B and Fitosporin-M are especially distinguished.

Folk remedies

Folk remedies are less effective when compared with the aforementioned drugs. It is not recommended to fight gray rot with their help in advanced cases, otherwise there is a risk of losing the entire crop. However, folk remedies are excellent remedies that can be used prophylactically. Unlike the same chemicals, they are completely safe and environmentally friendly, they can be made with your own hands at home without much financial expense.

So, you can use a baking soda solution to fight gray mold. You only need 10 grams of product and 10 liters of water. All this is mixed and applied to plants. It is worth paying attention to the infusion of wood ash. For cooking, you need a glass of the main component, a liter of hot water and a day for tincture. After a lapse of time, 10 liters of water are added to the mixture, all this is mixed, and then used to process tomatoes.

You can also use a solution based on oak bark to fight gray mold. You will need 5 grams of the main component and a liter of water, all this needs to be boiled well for 10 minutes, then add another 10 liters of water to the solution. Milk of lime is another sure-fire method for removing gray mold. You only need a gram of the product and 10 liters of water. All this is mixed and used on tomato bushes.


Black leg on seedlings - what to do?

Treatment for black leg should be started at the first signs of the disease, otherwise you can lose all the seedlings. How to get rid of the black leg? How to water the substrate in which the seedlings grow from the black leg? It must be said that the measures to combat blackleg on tomatoes, for example, are absolutely the same as on cabbage, peppers and any other vegetable crop: as soon as you notice the symptoms of the disease, pour the substrate in which the seedlings grow with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate , carefully loosen the soil around the seedlings, hilling the root collar, and sprinkle the surface of the substrate with wood ash, a layer of sand or eggshell ground into dust. After that, ventilate the room and try to place the seedling boxes as far apart as possible. If the disease is at the very beginning of its development, these measures should be sufficient.

However, if the disease has already begun to develop, it is likely that you will not be able to save the seedlings. What to do to save vegetable seedlings from a black leg? Those seedlings that are not yet sick should be immediately transplanted into a fresh, sterile substrate. And this time, try to take into account our recommendations and process the soil for seedlings as needed.

If you are unable to transplant seedlings, remove the diseased specimens from the box, cover the surface of the substrate with a protective layer as described above, after which, if you are not afraid to use chemicals, treat the seedlings and soil with a solution of 2 ml of Previkur in 1 liter of water or 1- 2 g of Fundazole in the same amount of water. If you avoid using chemicals, spray crops with biological preparations Planriz, Fitosporin, Fitoflavin or Bactofit, or use folk remedies.

After processing, reduce the watering of the seedlings to a minimum, moistening the substrate instead of water with an infusion of onion peels or a weak solution of potassium permanganate.

And finally, advice for those who want to preserve a rare variety of culture: if the top of the affected seedling is still alive and does not show signs of lethargy, pinch it off and try to root it - plant it in the ground or put it in water. Tomato seedlings, which have rare vitality, take root most easily. They may well take root and grow again.


What does a fungus look like on various plants

The first signs appear on the leaves of plants. So on cucumbers, eggplants and tomatoes, watery blurry spots of a brown hue appear. They grow, merge into one spot, on the surface of which a gray bloom is concentrated, representing the spores of the fungus. Fruits and berries have round light green spots with brown spore dots inside.

Cabbage petioles are affected by gray rot, since they are the ones that are closest to the base. The fungus looks like an outwardly ordinary mold with fluff and dark spots scattered over the surface.

The surface of the root crops softens, becomes sticky and wet, turns brown. Potatoes, carrots, beets are also covered with a gray bloom.

Gray rot appears on the buds of flowers, which is why they rot, the leaves of the infected plant lose color and gradually wither. The fungus affects not only the leaves, but also the woody parts of currants, gooseberries. In the latter, the bases of the shoots also suffer.

Gray rot on garden strawberries is reported by withered stalks and rotten fruits, covered with a characteristic gray bloom.


How to deal with crawling pests

Planting plants in well-lit, well-groomed, non-thickened areas. Crawling pests go out to feast on at dusk, in the daytime they hide under boards, grass, which makes it possible to quickly catch and destroy a large number of individuals (spread boards, burlap, plywood between the rows). You can also use coniferous needles or branches, spreading them between plants - this will be mulching, fertilization and protection from crawling pests.

If the accumulated individuals are pollinated with copper sulfate powder, then in 1-2 minutes they will die. Sprinkle a small amount of superphosphate, copper sulfate or quicklime 3-4 times every other day between the rows in the morning on the soil. Quicklime or superphosphate can be sprinkled on the soil between the rows before the berries are set - this is a good preventative measure.

From chemical preparations after harvesting the last crop: to decompose granular metaldehyde on the beds in the places of accumulation of pests 5 g per 1 sq. M.

From wood lice: wood lice love increased moisture, which means that it can be created artificially. Spread out birch brooms, previously soaked in water for 4 hours between plants. Pests will get there during the day, and destroy them in the evening by shaking off the brooms.

From ants: pour over the places of accumulation with a mixture of sunflower oil (1 cup) and table vinegar (500 ml) or vinegar essence (1 cup) and water (10 l).

Strawberry nematode

Worms up to 1 mm long. They live inside the aerial parts of strawberries: buds, leaves, strawberry whiskers. As a result, the plants slow down their growth, and the leaves and petioles begin to redden, deform and "swell".

How to deal with strawberry nematode

Remove weeds, observe crop rotation, plant calendula nearby.

If the seedlings are purchased, then before planting they must be rinsed with water so that there is no soil left on the roots. After that, immerse the plants in a saline solution for 15 minutes (5 tablespoons of table salt per 5 liters of water), rinse with running water and plant.

If damaged, the plants are dug up and burned, the site is treated with bleach.

Wireworms

These are the larvae of click beetles. Wireworms are dangerous to any part of the plant.

How to deal with wireworms

Regularly loosen the soil between the rows, remove wheatgrass, observe crop rotation, use traps.

Vegetables are buried near the plants to a depth of 10 cm (carrots, potatoes, beets), after putting them on a stick. The end of the stick should be sticking out of the ground. After a couple of days, the trap is carefully dug up and destroyed.

Advice to summer residents: it is better to carry out such a treatment of strawberries from diseases and pests as a preventive measure in the second half of September: liquid soap (2 tablespoons), burnt sunflower oil (3 tablespoons), wood ash (2 tablespoons). ), vinegar (2 tablespoons), stir in 10 liters of warm water (30 ° C). Strain and sprinkle all strawberry bushes and soil.

Undoubtedly, strawberries are the most favorite berry. Despite all sorts of misfortunes that threaten her. For an attentive gardener, strawberries will always be healthy and productive, and most importantly, environmentally friendly. Let's try to do without pesticides! Fundamental rules.

Control measures: Avoid thickening of plantings, remove excess leaves and rosettes. In time to remove dead leaves and other rotting plant residues, put straw, pine needles, non-woven material under the berries in order to avoid contact with wet soil to fight gnawing pests that damage the berries.

Ants and slugs damage ripe berries by gnawing holes in them. Subsequently, the bitten berry becomes a source of fungal infection. Control measures. With a large number of slugs, they are caught out, spreading rotten boards or wet cardboard around the beds in the evening, slugs gather in these shelters. The soil around the beds is thickly sprinkled with ash, and if it is very wet, the ash is poured onto polyethylene, pressed with pebbles to the ground. Water containers work well against ants, in which they put supports for the peduncles, the peduncle stem is smeared with liquid garden var. The method is completely environmentally friendly, but very laborious. You can also surround the bushes with adhesive tape for insects (it is also laborious, since it is useless to surround the entire garden, ants have a lot of underground passages).

Did you like the article? Share it with your friends! (links below)



Previous Article

Clay Soil Shrubs: Are There Shrubs That Like Clay Soil Sites

Next Article

Blueberry Bonus: how to grow on your site