Artificial ponds on a personal plot can perform not only a decorative function, being an effective part of the design, but also bring good benefits. Fish farming in artificial reservoirs is an exciting activity that allows you to diversify your leisure time and grow ecologically clean fish. When deciding to create a reservoir for fish farming in order to make the dream of fishing in your own summer cottage come true, you need to organize everything correctly. This is what we are going to talk about today.
An ideal option for a good rest and a favorite fishing activity is the location of the site near an existing reservoir. In the absence of the opportunity to enjoy the benefits of nature, the owners of personal plots can always create a reservoir for fish farming with their own hands.
Crucian carp and carp can be safely attributed to the number of the most picky fish in leaving. These unpretentious species perfectly adapt to life even in stagnant and rather shallow bodies of water.
Carp is a fish that gets along well in fairly small areas. As practice shows, carp in small ponds grows faster than in large ponds. This is due to the fact that in a small area the fish spends less energy looking for food. A small pond is also convenient for the owner, since it is easier to care for a small reservoir.
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The dimensions of the pit may vary depending on the preferences and capabilities of the site owner
A small pond can accommodate up to two dozen crucians and several medium-sized carps. On average, 10 to 20 fish are taken per 1 cube of water.
For breeding carp and crucian carp, a home pond, measuring 4x6 meters, with a reservoir depth of 0.8 to 1.5 meters, is optimal. The main advantage of such a pond size is the rather rapid heating of water in summer to a temperature of 24-26 degrees, which is the most favorable for the life of these species. Lowering the temperature in the reservoir to 12 degrees can lead to a decrease in the intensity of feeding and growth activity in fish. An increase in temperature over 30 degrees also leads to a decrease in the activity of the vital processes of carp and crucian carp.
Keeping and breeding fish in artificial reservoirs begins with the preparation of a pit for the reservoir. Having decided on the size of the future pond and having dug a pit, the surface of the soil should be leveled and tamped. It is advisable to cement the bottom of the future reservoir.
An alternative budget option is the use of a dense polyethylene film for laying the bottom.
With careful use of the film, a sufficiently strong base can last more than one season. Laying pre-glued together car chambers from trucks at the bottom of the pit is also a fairly common option that does not require large financial costs.
If you want to breed crayfish in addition to fish in the pond, you can put broken pots, pipes and stones of different sizes on the bottom of the reservoir. Such caches will allow crayfish to hide from fish during molting.
The coast of the reservoir can be planted with moisture-loving plants such as reeds and willow
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You can fill the pond with well, spring or artesian water, as well as with ordinary tap water. Regardless of what kind of water the reservoir is filled with, you should not rush to launch fish into practically sterile water in the first days. The water should warm up well in the sun, settle and acquire microorganisms. In other words, the water must become alive. A couple of buckets of living water transferred from an inhabited pond, as well as a bunch of wilted grass, lowered to the bottom of a new reservoir, will help speed up the process of enriching water with microflora.
The acidity in the reservoir should vary in the range of 7-8 ph. A neutral environment is considered optimal for fish farming. A decrease in acidity to 5 pH is unfavorable for the life of carp and crucian carp. You can increase the acidity in the reservoir by adding a portion of limestone or soda solution. To determine the average level of acidity of water, measurements should be taken in several places around the perimeter of the reservoir. It should be borne in mind that the speed of the chemical reaction of the interaction of substances directly depends on such a factor as the intensity of sunlight. Direct sunlight speeds up the process significantly.
It also happens that even the use of additives can only have a short-term effect.
If the acidity even under the influence of substances decreases over time, then one should look for the reason that determines the development of such an environment.
An equally important condition for launching fish into a reservoir is an optimal temperature regime. It is very important that the temperature of the fish tank and the pond is exactly the same.
The process of equalizing the water temperature of the tank with the fish with the temperature inside the reservoir will reduce the risk of developing a temperature shock in fish, which can lead to the death of even adults during the first day.
After completing the preparatory work, you can release the fish.
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Breeding fish in artificial reservoirs also provides for artificial feeding, which can significantly increase the weight gain. Since carps are omnivorous, it is quite possible to use compound feed intended for poultry and pigs to feed the fish.
Fish with pleasure also absorbs the natural resources of the reservoir: earthworms, insects
Loose loose feed should be applied in the form of porridge or thick dough, which is formed by mixing the feed with water in a bucket. Grain of legumes and cereals, which are given in a steamed swollen form, can serve as a substitute for compound feed.
The ratio of the volume of grain feed to the mass of fish should not exceed 3-5%. When organizing feeding fish, it is advisable to adhere to a certain schedule. Fish is fed at the same time 1-2 times a day in a specially designated place. When arranging a feeding place, you can prepare a pallet table that can be easily lowered and removed from the water. The use of a feeder will allow you to control the presence of uneaten food residues, the acidification of which can spoil the water. To develop a conditioned reflex in individuals, calling on the fish to feed, you can use a bell.
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Fish farming in artificial reservoirs is considered a profitable business, which can be organized even in your country house by building your own reservoir. This is an idea for starting a small business that does not require huge costs. With a competent approach to business, the investment pays off and leads to a stable income in a short period of time.
How to make an artificial pond and how best to grow river inhabitants will be discussed in more detail below.
Fish is considered a dietary product that contains useful substances, trace elements. They are essential for the functional activity of the human body.
The advantageous quality of fish reproduction in artificial pools is that it can be positioned absolutely anywhere. This can be a garden or another part of the infield. Another positive point is the ability to choose the volume, material and shape of the tank. Such tanks are very durable, as they are made of fiberglass, metal or reinforced concrete structures. They require minor maintenance work and do not need very frequent cleaning activities. If desired, you can order pools of any shape, which will allow you to install it based on the availability of free space. As a rule, the walls of the tank, made of various types of plastic, have a smooth surface, which prevents their significant contamination, reduces the cost of water treatment and the likelihood of a fish epidemic. The ability to artificially regulate the temperature and hydrochemical regimes makes it possible to use reservoirs of this type all year round.
The installation of a closed water exchange, as the most advanced method of growing in artificial conditions, allows you to achieve complete mechanization and automation of processes. For the reproduction of fry in this way, it is best to choose gourmet varieties (sturgeon or salmon), since the installation of expensive cleaning and water exchange equipment increases costs by about 1.5 times. The saturation of the planting in such an environment is calculated based on the rate of water purification and its circulation. The fish productivity rate is from 20 to 100 kg per 1 m3. The method is simple, but there are typical mistakes when starting it.
Purification of water in a reservoir should be carried out using a gravity filter. It is quite simple to install and it will not take much of your time. It costs about five thousand rubles. It is used not only to purify water, but also to remove microorganisms that cause water bloom and mud.
In order to saturate the water with oxygen, compressor equipment is used. Its cost can reach ten thousand rubles. In order to prevent the water in the reservoir from blooming, sterilizers with ultraviolet diodes are used. To pump water out of the reservoir, you need to purchase a hydraulic pump (about five thousand rubles). You can also do it by yourself collecting it from the tubes. In this case, the reservoir will be filled with water from underground sources and springs. Feeders can be purchased at tackle stores. Also, do not forget about the drainage equipment.
The minimum investment required for fish farming in artificial reservoirs is from 200 to 400 thousand rubles. It is possible to reach the payback line when 100% of finished products are sold after 2-3 years.
Additional income from the breeding business can be obtained by arranging paid fishing in the pond. This will attract more fishing enthusiasts.
Whether fish farming is profitable or not, how a business depends on preliminary calculations and determination of its own capabilities. Correct organization of fish farming in artificial reservoirs can become a source of stable income.