Celandine (lat.Chelidonium) - a genus of dicotyledonous plants of the Poppy family, which in culture is represented by the species large celandine (Chelidonium majus), popularly called the warthog, yellow milkweed, puree or podtinnik. The scientific name of the genus is translated from Latin as "swallow grass", and is based on the belief that these birds treat blind cubs with celandine juice.
The presence of such healing properties in celandine was confirmed at one time by the doctors of Ancient Greece and Avicenna. Healers used celandine juice to treat eye diseases until the 18th century. Over time, other valuable properties of the plant became known. The Russian names "celandine" and "warthog" are associated with the fact that celandine juice reduced warts and other skin formations.
In nature, the species is widespread in Europe, the Mediterranean, and also in America, where it was brought in in the 17th century as a remedy for removing warts. In our climate, this grass grows everywhere like a weed.
Read more about growing celandine below.
The stalk of celandine is straight and branched, reaching a height of 50 to 100 cm. At its break, a thick milky sap is released, which acquires a reddish-orange color in the air. The lower, basal leaves of celandine are deeply pinnate-separate, consisting of three to five pairs of ovoid or rounded lobes with a three-lobed, larger than the rest, upper lobe. The upper side of the leaves is green, the lower is glaucous. The lower leaves are petioled, the upper leaves are sessile. Regular four-petalled golden-yellow celandine flowers up to 2.5 cm in diameter are collected in simple umbrellas. Flowers do not have nectars, but insects, including bees, are attracted by the abundance of pollen. The fruit of celandine is a pod-shaped, multi-seeded capsule containing small black shiny seeds with a comb-like appendage of white color.
Celandine propagates by segments of rhizomes and seeds. This herb grows best in full sun, but you can grow it in partial shade, and even in damp, dark places. The mechanical composition of the soil also does not matter much. Many people plant celandine where nothing grows, for example, along fences or behind sheds.
Freshly harvested celandine seeds are sown before winter, since germination of last year's seeds is much worse. But you can sow celandine in the spring. The soil is dug to the depth of a shovel bayonet and harrowed. Sowing depth - 5 cm. If celandine is sown at the end of April, then it will germinate in two weeks, bloom in mid-July, and bear fruit at the end of August. Seedlings sown before winter will appear before seeds sown in spring will germinate. The overwintered adult celandine begins to grow in the first decade of May, in mid-May it will already begin to form flowers, and flowering will stop only by August.
Celandine requires virtually no maintenance. When shoots appear, let them grow a little stronger and plant them so that there is a distance of about 30 cm between the bushes: each plant needs a feeding area. Watering celandine will be needed only if a prolonged drought is established. Sometimes celandine can be fed with mullein infusion: cow dung is poured with water, infused for 2-3 days, stirring occasionally, then filtered and diluted with water 1: 6. You do not have to fight weeds: in the area where celandine grows, even such a weed as creeping wheatgrass does not take root. By the way, celandine herb can be used as an insecticidal agent: it is harvested during the flowering period, dried, ground into powder and pollinated from onion flies and cruciferous fleas.
The celandine is harvested at the time of flowering: the bush is pulled out entirely, along with the roots, cleaned of earth, dry leaves and parts of other plants, washed in water, tied in bunches of 10-15 bushes and hung to dry in a dry, shaded place with good air circulation. If you are using a dryer, set the temperature to 50-60 ºC. It is advisable that the process takes place as quickly as possible, because with quick drying more juice is retained in the plant, and if celandine is dried for a long time, then it can turn brown and moldy.
Each dry bunch of celandine is wrapped from dust in cloth or paper, leaving the top of the bush ajar so that the plant has access to air. The wrapped bundles are stored suspended in a dry, dark place with good ventilation - such storage allows the use of raw materials for up to 5-6 years. If you put dry celandine in cardboard boxes, then the shelf life of the medicinal product is reduced to three years.
When working with celandine, try not to touch your face with your hands, especially your eyes and lips.
In addition to large celandine, the description of which we placed at the beginning of the article, sometimes it is mentioned as introduced into the culture Asian celandine (Chelidonium asiaticum), but many experts consider it to be just a subspecies of large celandine, despite the fact that in 1982, on the basis of karyological and morphological analysis, it was separated into a separate species.
Also known spring celandine, or forest poppy (Hylomecon vernalis = Hylomecon japonicum) Is a perennial species with large bright yellow flowers, also belonging to the Poppy family, but representing an independent monotypic genus. Forest poppy is grown in culture as an ornamental plant.
We remind you that celandine is poisonous: it contains over 20 isoquinoline alkaloids, among which chelidonin, which is similar in structure to morphine and papaverine, homohelidonin - convulsive poison acting as a strong local anesthetic, sanguinarine, which has a short narcotic effect, ending in convulsions, and at the same time stimulating salivation and intestinal peristalsis, as well as protopintoning the muscles of the uterus.
The composition of celandine contains a large amount of ascorbic acid, flavonoids, carotene, bitterness, saponins, resins, chelidonic, citric, malic and succinic organic acids. Due to its complex chemical composition, celandine has a choleretic, bactericidal, antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory effect. Fresh plant sap is used to cauterize acne and blisters with herpes, reduce calluses and warts, and discolor age spots.
The healing properties of celandine are used to remove polyps from the intestines. Under the supervision of doctors, gynecological and ophthalmological diseases are treated with celandine. With a decoction of celandine, rinse the mouth with stomatitis and other problems with the gums, and the infusion eliminates inflammatory processes in the nasopharynx.
The sedative effect of celandine makes it possible to use it as an additive to sedative preparations for stress, insomnia, neuroses, and the ability to relieve spasms explains its use for cholelithiasis, colitis, gastritis, salt and sand deposition in the kidneys. In addition, celandine is used to treat atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, lung diseases, including bronchial asthma, as well as rheumatism, lupus erythematosus, food poisoning and other intoxications, psoriasis, eczema, lichen, acne and mastitis. The analgesic effect of celandine allows you to use it for burns.
No matter how useful celandine is, do not forget that it is poisonous. In case of poisoning, the following symptoms may appear:
Because of the alkaloids contained in them, celandine and its preparations are contraindicated for pregnant and lactating women, children, epileptics, people suffering from severe mental disorders, angina pectoris, cardiac decompensation, chronic constipation and severe dysbiosis. Topical application of celandine can cause skin damage.
And even if you are not at risk, before using celandine, consult your doctor, and then strictly follow the recommended dosage.
Sections: Garden Plants Herbaceous Flowering Medicinal Weeds Plants for Poppy
Greater celandine (Chelidonium majus) is popularly known as purity, yellow euphorbia, gladden, swallow grass, warthog, neatness, podtinnik, seer, yellow milkweed, glechkopar.
This slender perennial plant has a luxurious, exuberant, deciduous "head of hair" with white hairs and waxed bloom. Its height can reach one meter. Leaves at the root, as well as in the middle of the stem, are larger. Above, the leaves are smaller and less excised.
Flowers are collected in the leaf axils - there may be up to eight inflorescences. They look very cute, resembling small umbrellas. At the end of flowering, a pod-shaped box is formed - this is its fruit, which opens with two valves. It contains black seeds.
This wild culture begins to bloom in early May and delights people until early September. The fruits are ready to harvest from July to September.
The geography of its growth is quite wide - the entire European part of Russia, from the Caucasus to the Northern Urals, where it is also called Altai celandine, as well as Ukraine, except for the mountain peaks of the Carpathians, Belarus, Eastern, Central and some regions of Northern Europe, eastern Mongolia, foothill plains Tibet and China.
The Gladner can be found both in large groups and alone. Too lit areas are not to his taste. Prefers moderately light or shady areas in the forest. In coniferous forests, groves or on the coast, it can be found extremely rarely.
An amazing fact, but its wide distribution, the seer owes some extent to ants. These small but hardy insects use its seeds for their food, transferring them a considerable distance.
Let us examine in more detail the methods of reproduction of Schisandra chinensis at home.
Before starting work, be sure to pay attention to the expiration date of the seed and its condition. Overdried seeds do not guarantee even 70% germination... The same goes for old seeds. No mechanical damage or cracks on the seed. A healthy plant cannot grow from such seed material.
Chinese lemongrass seeds
The seed method will require planting in the autumn, so that the seeds go through the process of natural stratification. (cold treatment of seeds). In the spring, during the first thaws, the seeds will sprout, they will easily germinate through the moist and loose soil.
If the planting time is postponed to spring, you will need to stratify the seeds in the refrigerator, after soaking them in water with manganese, for 7-8 days.
The water in the container will need to be changed daily:
After the preparatory stage, the seeds are dried and mature, undamaged seeds are selected from the total mass. Another way to determine the quality of the seed is after soaking, all floating seeds are removed.
River sand undergoes high temperature treatment for disinfection and is placed in seedling containers. Seeds are planted, placed in a warm place and constantly moistened. The processing time is 30 days.
After the onset of the first cold weather and snowfall, the containers are completely covered with snow or placed in a cold room for the whole winter.
Overwintered seeds, with the onset of a warm period, are planted in a school. To do this, furrows up to 20 mm deep are drawn with a hoe on the loose soil of the selected area. Sprouted seeds are laid, and covered with sod soil on top. After watering, the bed is covered with a layer of mulch. For this layer, you can use peat, old sawdust or sunflower husks.
Now you need to constantly moisten the soil and add a layer of mulch under the growing plant, for 2-3 years. Only after that, transplant the seedlings into place.
Development in the school, plants grow in height up to 50 mm. It is important for them to create optimal conditions for growth. Periodic top dressing, watering and constant loosening of the soil in the aisle, removing weeds. With a steady hot period, you will need to shade the school with seedlings using a thin "Agrospan" or old curtains.
The main task is the development of the root system and the ground part. To do this, you will need to ensure the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers and perform sanitary pruning of damaged or weakened stems of the liana bush. The task of the 3rd year is to provide the plant with conditions for its growth up to 500 mm in height. During this period, it is already possible to plant a ready-made strong seedling in a permanent place.
This technique requires a lot of time and increased attention and does not give 100% confidence that the seedlings will grow strong and healthy. Therefore, the technique is used when growing lemongrass in nurseries.
Growing by propagation of roots
This method allows you to get a ready-made seedling already in the second year of its growth.... The vegetative technique allows propagation using root cuttings or cuttings.
The best option is to plant part of the root of the mother bush. But if this is not possible, you can ask the neighbors for shoots after sanitary pruning and thinning the old bush, and prepare a sufficient number of cuttings.
Cuttings are cut so that each has at least 4-5 buds. Two of them are left above the ground, and the rest of the seedling must be scratched with a fork or other tool and planted in moistened soil.
The stalk will start up the roots, it will begin to develop. It is important to provide it with moisture and oxygen. Within a year, it will be possible to plant a ready-made seedling in a prepared place.
Root cut will allow you to plant a ready-made seedling directly when dividing the bush. To do this, it is enough to cut off the liana bush on one side, carefully clean the rhizome and separate from it a section with at least 3 dormant buds. A seedling is placed in the prepared planting hole and further work on growing and care is carried out according to the basic scheme.